6. Pronouns

6.1. About the Pronouns

6.1.1. Pronouns are used as nouns or as adjectives. They are divided into the following seven classes:

1. Personal pronouns: as, eg, I.

2. Reflexive pronouns: as, se, himself.

3. Possessive pronouns: as, serós, our.

4. Demonstrative pronouns: as, so, this, that.

5. Relative pronouns: as, jos, who.

6. Interrogative pronouns: as, qis? who?

7. Indefinite pronouns: as, qis, anyone.

6.1.2. Like adjectives, pronouns are declined for case and number and – except for the personal and reflexive pronouns – for gender. Pronouns have a special declension, differing from the nominal declension in several respects.

6.2. Personal Pronouns

6.2.1. The personal pronouns of the first person are eg, I, wejes, we; of the second person, tū, thou, juwes, you. The personal pronouns of the third person - he, she, it, they - are wanting in Indo-European, an anaphoric (or even a demonstrative) being used instead.

NOTE. Late Indo-European had no personal pronouns for the third person, like most of the early dialects attested. For that purpose, a demonstrative was used instead; as, from ki, id, cf. Anatolian ki, Gmc. khi-, Lat. cis-, id, Gk. ekeinos, Lith. sis, O.C.S. si, etc.

6.2.2. Since every finite verb form automatically indicates the ‘person’ of the verb, the nominal pronoun forms are already adequately marked.  Therefore, pronouns are not generally used in verbal sentences; they might be used to mark insistence, though: esmi, I am; eg esmi, me, I am.

In comparison with the orthotonic forms, often strengthened by particles, the special enclitic forms feature the minimal word stem and may be used in multiple cases.

NOTE. Tonic forms are fully stressed (emphatic or contrastive), while enclitic are unstressed clitic object pronouns; these are clearly attested in Anatolian, Indo-Iranian, Greek, Balto-Slavic and Tocharian. They are mostly reduced versions of the full forms, and it is a common resource write them added to the preceding verb, cf. Hitt. -mu, O.Lith. -m(i).

6.2.3. The personal (non-reflexive) pronouns are declined as follows:

First Person

 

Singular eg-, me-

Plural we-, no-

 

Orthotonic

Enclitic

Orthotonic

Enclitic

NOM.

eg(h)óm, eg, I

wejes, smés, we

ACC.

mewóm, me

me

smé, nōns, us

nos

GEN.

mene, of me

mo

seróm, of us

nos

DAT.

meghei, meghjom

moi

sméi, nosbhos

nos

LOC.

mei

smí, nosi

INS.

mojo

-

nosbhis

ABL.

med

-

sméd

Second Person

 

Singular tu-, te-

Plural  ju-, we-

 

Orthotonic

Enclitic

Orthotonic

Enclitic

NOM.

tū, tu, thou

juwes, jusmés, you

ACC.

tewóm, thee

t(w)e

jusmé, wōns, you

wos

GEN.

tewe; of thee

t(w)o

wesróm, of you

wos

DAT.

tebhei, tebhjo

t(w)oi

jusméi, wosbhos

wos

LOC.

t(w)ei

jusmí, wosi

INS.

t(w)ojo

wosbhis

ABL.

t(w)ed

jusméd

NOTE. A comprehensive comparison of the reconstructed forms is at the end of this book:

1) For 1st P. Nom. eghóm (<*egh2-óm), emphatic from eg (<*eg-óh2), cf. O.Ind. ahám, Av. azəm, Hom.Gk. εγων, Ven. ehom.

2) Enclitics moi, mei, and t(w)oi, t(w)ei, are found in genitive, dative and locative, but they are deliberately specialised in this table.

3) 1st sg. dative is often found reconstructed as mebhi/mebhei, following the 2nd pl.  tebhei/tebhi.

4) -es endings in nom. pl., smés, (j)usmés (<*juswés?) attested in Att.-Ion. Greek and Gothic.

5) An older ju(s)wes is probably behind the generally reconstructed nominative *jūHs? based on Balto-Slavic (and Germanic) forms, which would therefore be a contraction of the original form (cf. Skt. yū-yám, Gk. u-meis, Lat. uōs, Cel. s-wīs, Goth. iz-wis<*uz-wes?)   

6) Zero-grade forms in jus- are also found as us- (from wes-? cf. Goth. izwis<*uswes?).

7) Possibly accusatives jusmé<*jusmēn<**jusmens, and smé<*smēn<**smens.

8) Probably acc. pl. **nos-m-snōns and **wos-m-swōns.

8) Gen. nsom, wsom, is also attested.

9) Osc.-Umb., O.Ind. variant (orthotonic) series of Acc. Sg. in -m, as mēm(e), twēm, tewem, usóm, s(w)ēm.

10) Dual forms (in *-h1) are for the 1st nom. , acc. tonic , enclitic ; for the 2nd , acc. tonic ūwé, enclitic .

For the personal pronouns of the third person singular and plural, the anaphoric i- is used. See §6.5 and §6.6 for more details on its use and inflection.

6.3. Reflexive Pronouns

6.3.1. Reflexive pronouns are used in the accusative and the oblique cases to refer to the subject of the sentence or clause in which they stand, meaning ‘(one)self’.

They do not have a nominative case, do not distinguish number, and can be used with any of the three persons.

se, -self

ACC.

se, myself, yourself, himself/herself/itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

GEN.

sewe, soi, of myself, yourself, himself/herself/itself, ourselves, etc.

ABL.

swed, by/from/etc. myself, yourself, himself/herself/itself, ourselves, etc.

DAT.

sebhei, soi, to myself, yourself, himself/herself/itself, ourselves, etc.

L.-I.

sei, in/with myself, yourself, himself/herself/itself, ourselves, etc.

 

NOTE. Particular IE languages show an old swoi and swe, cf. Gk. Lesb. ϝε. According to J.T. Katz precisely this swe is regarded as ancient and se as secondary. In contrast, G.E. Dunkel connects se/soi, which he considers more ancient, with the demonstrative pronoun so.

6.3.2. The reciprocals one another, each other, were expressed like the distributives (v.s. §5.5.4), with the first member in the nominative, and the second in the accusative (or other oblique case); as, aljos aljom, onjos onjom, etc.; as,

NOTE. Cf. Hitt. 1-aš 1-an ku-w-aš-ki-it ‘one killed the other continuously’, O.Ind. anyonya-<*anyás anyám, Av. aniiō.aniia-, Chor. nywny, Gk. allālo-<*alos allon, *alloi allous ‘one another’, Lat. aliī aliōs, alterius alterum; for oinos álterom, cf. Latin unus alterum, Eng. one another, Ger. einander, etc. Reciprocity is one of the principal meanings of middle voice forms, v.i. §7.1.2.

6.4. Possessive Pronouns

6.4.1. From the bases of the personal pronouns, the oldest possessive pronouns seem to have been mos, mine, smós, ours, twos, thine, usmós, yours, swos, own.

NOTE. So e.g. in Gk. emós (<*h1mós), ammos, sós, ummos, hos, Av. ma-, θwa-, O.Ind. tva-. Variants exist in tewós (as Gk. teϝós, Lat. tuus), sewós (as Gk. heϝós, Lat. suus), explained as neologisms, but “which may well be as early as Late PIE” (Sihler 1995).

6.4.2. The common Late Indo-European possessives were formed from the same bases with suffixes -(i)jo- in the singular, -(t)ero- in the plural; as, méwijos, menjos, my,serós, our, téwijos, thy, userós, your, séwijos.

NOTE. For such common PIE forms, similar to the genitives of the personal pronouns (v.s. §6.2), cf. Gk. ēméteros (<smé-tero-), uméteros (<usmé-tero-), O.Lat. noster (<nos-tero-) uoster (<wos-tero-), Goth. unsara-, (<s-ero-), izwara- (<wesw-ero-?), etc. all used as possessive pronouns; for the singular, cf. Lat. meus, O.C.S. mojĭ, Goth meina-, etc. O.Ind. madīya-, tvadīya, etc. were formed from the ablatives mad, tvad, etc., while possessives mamaka-, asmāka-, jusmāka-, were made from the genitives. See Szemerényi (1970), Adrados–Bernabé–Mendoza (1995-1998), Meier-Brügger (2003).

6.4.3. Possessives are declined like adjectives of the first type, in -os, -ā, -om.

NOTE. PIE swos, séwijos, are only used as reflexives, referring generally to the subject of the sentence. For a possessive of the third person not referring to the subject, the genitive of the anaphoric must be used. Thus, pater séwijom chenti, (s)he/it kills his [own] father; but pater esjo chenti, (s)he/it kills his [somebody (m.) else’s] father. See below §10.1.2 for more on its use.

6.5. Anaphoric Pronouns

6.5.1. Anaphora is an instance of an expression referring to another, the weak part of the deixis. In general, an anaphoric is represented by a pro-form or some kind of deictic. They usually don’t have adjectival use, and are only used as mere abbreviating substitutes of the noun.

NOTE. Old anaphorics were usually substituted in modern IE languages by demonstratives.

They are usually integrated into the pronoun system with gender; only occasionally some of these anaphorics have been integrated into the personal pronouns system in Indo-European languages.

6.5.2. Indo-European has a general anaphoric pronoun, is, ja/ī id, an old demonstrative pronoun with basis on PIE root i- with ablaut ei-.

NOTE. PIE root i- is also the base for common relative jo-. Demonstrative is, ja/ī, id, with anaphoric value, “he/she/it”, in Italic (e.g. Lat. is,ea, id), Germanic (e.g. O.H.G. ir, er/iz, ez), Baltic (e.g. Lith. jìs/), Greek (e.g. Cypriot ín), Indo-Iranian (e.g. Skt. ay-ám, iy-ám, i-d-ám).

6.5.3. The other demonstrative pronoun, so, , tod, functions as anaphoric too, but tends to appear leading the sentence, being its origin probably the relative. They are also used for the second term in comparisons.

NOTE. Demonstrative so, , tod is also widely attested in Celtic (e.g. O.Ir. -so/-d), Italic (e.g. Lat. is-te, is-ta, is-tud), Germanic (e.g. Goth. sa, , þata, O.Eng. , sēo, þæt, O.H.G. der, die, daz), Baltic (e.g. Lith. tàs, ), Slavic (e.g. O.C.S. tŭ, ta, to), Alb. ai, ajo, Gk. ho, , , Indo-Iranian (e.g. Skt. , s, tát), Toch B se, , te, Arm. ay-d, Hitt. ta. Modern IE languages have sometimes mixed both forms to create a single system, while others maintain the old differentiation.

 

6.6. Demonstrative Pronouns

6.6.1. The function of demonstrative pronouns, deixis, includes an indication of position in relation to the person speaking. It is possible to express a maximum of four (generally three) different degrees of distance; as, I-deixis (here, near the speaker), thou-deixis (there, near the person addressed), that-deixis (there, without a particular spatial reference), yonder-deixis (yonder, over there).

6.6.2. The demonstrative pronouns so, this, that, and is, this one, that one, “the (just named)”, are used to point out or designate a person or thing for special attention, either with nouns, as adjectives, or alone, as pronouns, and are declined as follows:


 

so, , tod, this, that

 

Singular

Plural

 

masc.

neu.

fem.

masc.

neu.

fem.

NOM.

so

tod

toi

tāi

ACC.

tom

tām

tons

tāns

GEN.

tosjo

tesjās

toisom

tāsom

ABL.

tosmōd

tesjās

toibhos/toimos

tābhos/tāmos

DAT.

tosmōi

tesjāi

toibhos/toimos

tābhos/tāmos

LOC.

tosmi

tesjāi

toisu

tāsu

INS.

toi

tesjā

tōis

tābhis/tāmis

 NOTE. Variants are observed in the attested dialects: 1) Nom. so (before all consonants) is also found as sos in Old Indian, Greek and Gothic (in all other circumstances), and as se in Latin (cf. Lat. ipse). 2) Nom. is found as sja/sī in Germanic and Celtic. 3) Nom. Pl. tāi is general, while sāi is restricted to some dialects, as Attic-Ionic Greek, possibly from original fem. * and masc. *to (Meier-Brügger 2003). However, linguists like Beekes (1995) or Adrados–Bernabé–Mendoza (1995-1998) reconstruct the nominative form in s- as the original Proto-Indo-European form. 4) The instrumental singular forms are difficult to reconstruct with the available data.

is, ja, id, this one, that one

 

Singular

Plural

 

masc.

neu.

fem.

masc.

neu.

fem.

NOM.

is

id

ja/ī

ejes

ī/ja

jās

ACC.

im

jam/īm

ins

jāns

GEN.

esjo

esjās

eisom

esom

ABL.

esmōd

esjās

eibhos/eimos

DAT.

esmōi

esjāi

eibhos/eimos

LOC.

esmi

esjāi

eisu

INS.

ei

esjā

eibhis/eimis

NOTE. Some emphatic forms exist; as, ejóm for is, idóm for id; ijóm for ja.

6.6.2. Distance degrees in demonstratives might be classified as follows: kos, , kod (also ghei-ke, ghāi-ke, ghod-ke), I-deixis, ‘this here’, oisos, oisā, oisom, thou-deixis, ‘this there’, general so, tod, , that-deixis; elne, elnā, elnod, yonder-deixis.

NOTE. While there is no definite or indefinite article in PIE, and nouns might be translated as indefinite or definite depending on the context – as in Sanskrit or Latin –, when the difference is crucial demonstratives are used. See §10.4.3.

6.6.3. Deictic particles which appear frequently with demonstrative pronouns include -ke/-ko-, here; -ne-/-no-, there; -wo-, away, again.

NOTE. For PIE i-, se-, he, cf. Lat. is, O.Ind. sa, esa, Hitt. apā, Goth. is, O.Ir. (h)í; for -ke/-ko-, in (e)ke, ghei-(ke), this (here), cf. Hitt. kās, eda (def.), Lat. hic (<*ghe-i-ke), Goth. hi-, sa(h), O.Ir. sin, O.C.S. sĭ, si, se, Lith. šìs, ši; for ke-enos, cf. Gk. keĩnos (<*ke-enos), O.N. hánn, hann, ‘he’; for au-, away, again, cf. Gk. houtos, O.Ind. a-sau, u-, Av. ava-, OCS. ovĭovĭ; for se-, te-, in oi-se, is-te, ene, this (there), cf. Lat. iste, Gk. οιος (<*oihos), O.Ind. enam (clit.); for en-, cf. O.C.S. onĭ, Lith. anàs ‘that’; for -ne, -no-, that, cf. Lat. ille (<*el-ne), ollus (<*ol-nos), Gk. keĩnos (<*ke-enos), Goth. jains. Common derivatives kei, here (loc. from ke), num-ke, now (from , now), or i-dhei, there, tom-ke, then (from tom, then). Latin (c)ibī, (c)ubī are frequently found reconstructed as PIE *ibhi, *qobhi (cf. Hitt. kuwaapi(t), see Kloekhorst 2007), but it is not difficult to find a common origin in PIE i-dhei, qo-dhei for similar forms attested in different IE dialects; cf. Lat. ubī, Osc. puf, O.Ind. kuha, O.Sla. kude, etc.

6.7. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns

6.7.1. Introduction

1. There are two forms of the interrogative-indefinite pronoun in Proto-Indo-European, and each one corresponded to a different class: qi- (with ablaut qei-) to the substantive, and qo- to the adjective pronouns.

SUBSTANTIVE

ADJECTIVE

qis bhéreti? who carries?

qos wīrós bhéreti? what man carries?

qid widjesi? what do you see?

qom autom widjesi? which car do you see?

NOTE. In the origin, qi-/qo- was possibly a noun which meant ‘the unknown’, and its interrogative/indefinite sense depended on the individual sentences. Later both became pronouns with gender, thus functioning as (orthotonic) interrogatives or (enclitic) indefinites (Szemerényi, 1970). The form qi- is probably the original independent form (compare the degree of specialisation of qo-, further extended in IE dialects), for which qo- could have been originally the o-grade form (Beekes 1995, Adrados–Bernabé–Mendoza 1995-1998). The substantive interrogative pronoun in PIE was qi-, whereas qo- was used to fill adjectival functions (Meier-Brügger 2003, Sihler 1995). Some IE dialects have chosen the o-stem only, as Germanic, while some others have mixed them together in a single paradigm, as Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic or Italic. Cf. Sktr. ka, Av. ko, Gk. tis, Lat. qui, quae, quod; quis, quid, Osc. pisi, Umb. púí, svepis, O.Pers. čiy, Pers. ki, Phryg. kos, Toch. kus/kŭse, Arm. ov, inč’, Gmc. *khwo- (cf. Goth. hwas, O.N. hverr, O.S. hwe, O.E. hwā, Dan. hvo, O.Fris. hwa, O.H.G. hwër), Lith. kas, Ltv. kas, O.C.S. kuto, Rus. kto, Pol. kto, O.Ir. ce, cid, Welsh pwy, Alb. kush, Kam. kâča; in Anatolian, compare Hitt. kuiš, Luw. kui-, Lyd. qi-, Lyc. tike, and Carian kuo.

2. The substantive interrogative pronoun qis? who?, qid? what?, declined like i-:

 

Singular

Plural

 

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

NOM.

qis

qid

qejes

qī/qja

ACC.

qim

qins

GEN.

qesjo

qeisom

ABL.

qesmōd

qeibhos/qeimos

DAT.

qesmei

qeibhos/qeimos

LOC.

qesmi

qeisu

INS.

qī

qeibhis/qeimis

NOTE. PIE -qe, and, is probably derived from the same root, and was originally a modal adverb meaning ‘as, like’; e.g. patr mātērqe, father like mother (Szemerényi 1970). Similarly, jo- is probably behind Hitt. -ya.

3. The adjective interrogative pronoun, qos? qā? who (of them)?, qod? what kind of? what one?, is declined throughout like the relative:

 

Singular

Plural

 

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

NOM.

qos

qā

qod

qoi

qās

qā

ACC.

qom

qām

qons

 

qāns

GEN.

qosjo

qoisom

ABL.

qosmōd

qoibhos/qoimos

DAT.

qosmōi

qoibhos/qoimos

LOC.

qosmi

qoisu

INS.

qoi

qoibhis/qoimis

 

 

4. The indefinite pronouns qi-/qo-, any one, any, are declined like the corresponding interrogatives.

SUBSTANTIVE

qis, anyone; qid, anything

ADJECTIVE

qos, qā, qod, any

5. PIE had other interrogative or relative particle, me-/mo-.

NOTE. It survived in Celtic (e.g. Bret ma, may ‘that’), Anatolian (Hit. masi ‘how much’), and Tocharian (Toch. A mänt ‘how’).

6.7.2. Compounds

1. The pronouns qi- and qo- appear in different combinations:

a. The forms can be repeated, as in substantive qisqis, anyone, qidqid, anything, or adjective qāqos, qāqā, qāqod, whoever.

NOTE. For this use, similar to the distributive ones, e.g. qāqos, whoever, cf. Gaul. papon, O.Ir. cāch, O.C.S. kakй, Lith. kók(i)s, and also Gk. εκατερος, εκαστος, O.Ind. pratieka, Hitt. kuissa, Goth. ainhvaþaruh; for qisqis, anyone, cf. Gk. τις, οστις, O.Ind. kim kid, kacit, kaścana, kopi, Hitt. kuis kuis, kuis-as kuis, Lat. quisquis, quīlĭbĕt, quīvis, Goth. hvazuh, hvarjizuh, Arm. in-č.

Other common PIE forms include solwos, all, cf. Gk. ολοι, O.Ind. visva, sarva, Hitt. hūmant-, O.Ir. u(i)le; enis, certain, cf. Gk. ενιαυτον, O.Ind. ekaścana Lat. quīdam; álteros, ónteros, the other, from aljos, onjos, some other, etc.

b. In some forms the copulative conjunction -qe is added to form new pronouns, usually universals; as, qiskomqe, qisimmoqe, whoever. Indefinites itaqe, and also, toqe, also, joqe, and.

NOTE. Cf.Gk. τις αν, τις εαν, O.Ind. ya kaś cit, yo ya, yadanga, Hitt. kuis imma, kuis imma kuis, kuis-as imma (kuis), Lat. quiscumque, Goth. sahvazuh saei, Ger. wer auch immer, O.Ir. cibé duine, Russ. кто бы ни;

c. Some forms are made with prefixes, like (substantive) edqis, some(one) among many, edqid, something, (adjective) edqos, edqā, edqod, whether, some. Other forms with suffixes; as, qéjespejoi, some.

NOTE. For (ed)qis, cf. Gk. τις, O.Ind. anyatama, Hitt. kuis ki, Lat. ecquis, quis, aliquis, Goth. hvashun, Russ. edvá, O.Ir. nech, duine. For qéjespejoi cf. Gk. οιτινες, O.Ind. katipaya, Hitt. kuis ki, Russ. несколько.

d. The negatives are usually composed with negation particles, usually ne; as, neqis, nobody, neqid, nothing, neqom, never; but neqos, someone.

NOTE. For neqis, nobody, no one, cf. Gk. ουδεις, O.Ind. na ka, Hitt. UL kuiski, Goth. (ni) hvashun, Gaul. nepon, O.Ir. ní aon duine, Lat. nec quisquam, Russ. никто.

e. It is also found as in compound with relative jo-; as, jos qis, anyone, jod qid, anything, cf. Gk. hóstis hótti, Skt. yás cit, yác cit.

f. With identity or oppositive forms; as, qidpe, indeed, aljodhei, elsewhere.

2. There are compounds with numerals; as, ghei-sem, exactly so, in this one way.

NOTE. Cf. Hitt. ki-ššan ‘thus, in the following way’, from ghei-sem, ‘in this one way, exactly so’,also found in eni-ššanthus, in the manner mentioned’,apeni-ššan ‘thus, in that way’, etc. For ne-oinom, ‘no one’, none, not any, cf. Eng. none, Ger. nein, maybe Lat. nōn. Also, Latin nūllus (<ne-oinolos, ‘not any’), none, null.

3. Reflexives are found in jota sei, alike, nearly, sweike, thus, swāi, so, etc.

6.7.3. Correlatives

1. Many pronouns, pronominal adjectives and adverbs have corresponding demonstrative, relative, and interrogative-indefinite forms in Indo-European. Such parallel forms are called correlatives, and some common forms are the following:

Demonstrative

Relative in jo-

Interrogative

so, sā, tod

jos, jā, jod

qis? qid?, qos? qā? qod?

this, that

who, which

who?, what? which?

ita

jota

qota?

so

so

how?

tālis

jālis

qālis?

so constituted

as

of what sort?

tām

jām

qām?

that way

which way

how, in what way?

tom, tod

jom

qom? qod?

then

when

when?

idhei, tor

jodhei

qor? qodhei?

here, there

where

where?

ti

ji

qi? qote?

thither

whither

whither?

totrōd

jomde

qomde? qotrōd?

from there

wherefrom

from which?

totjos

jotjos

qotjos?

so many

as many

how many?

toti

joti

qoti?

so often

as often

how often?

twtos

jwtos

qwtos?

so much/large

as much/large

how much/large?

to(s)jo

josjo

qosjo?

of whom/which

whose

pertaining to whom/what?

íteros

jóteros

qóteros?

(an)other

which (of two)

which (of two)?

tori

jori

qori?

therefore

wherefore

why?

NOTE.Relative forms in italics are inferred following the general paradigm, because its reconstruction is missing with the available comparative data. The rest of them are reconstructed in Mallory–Adams (2007), Szemerényi (1996), Sihler (1995), among others.

6.8. Relative Pronouns

6.8.1. There are two general pronominal stems used as relative pronouns, one related to the anaphorics (jo-), and one to the interrogative-indefinites (qi-/qo-).

NOTE. The interrogative pronoun is also used as indefinite in all IE languages. In some it is used additionally as relative, without differentiation in Anatolian, with it in Italic (e.g. Lat. quo- opposed to quis), Tocharian, later Celtic, Germanic and Baltic; the other group, comprising Aryan, Greek, Phrygian and Slavic kept using the PIE relative pronoun jo- (<*Hjo-), from the anaphoric root i-; cf. Gk. hós, , ho, Skt. s, , yad, Av. ya-, Phryg. ios, Sla. i-že, Cel. io, Goth ja-bai, maybe Hitt. ya, Toch. A yo. Despite Szemerényi (1970), who considers it mainly a S.LIE innovation, only Proto-Italic shows no traces of the common PIE relative, and because of that it is generally considered lost in that branch, not an innovation of the others.

6.8.2. PIE forms in jo- introduced appositive-explicative relative clauses, while those in qi-/qo- introduced attributive-restrictive clauses. For more information, see below §10.5.3.

6.8.3. IE relative pronoun jos, jā, jod, the o-stem derivative from i-, is inflected like so, sā, tod.

6.9. Other Pronouns

6.9.1. Identity pronouns are those generally called intensifiers or emphatic pronouns, expressions like Eng. ‘x-self’ (himself, herself, myself, oneself, etc.), Ger. selbst, selber, Lat. ipse, Ita. stesso or Russ. sam.

Proto-Indo-European formations that function as identity pronouns stem from a common epe, self; as, se epse, s(w)el (e)pe, -self.

NOTE. cf. Hitt. apāsila, O.Lat. sapsa, sumpse, ipse, Goth. silba, O.Ir. fessin, fadessin (>féin), Russ. сам.

6.9.2. Oppositive pronouns are usually derived from suffix -tero-; as, qóteros? which of two? íteros, another, álteros, the other one, próteros, first (of two).

NOTE. For qóteros, cf. Lat uter, O.Eng. hwæðer (Eng. whether), Lith kataràs, OCS koteryjĭ, Gk. póteros, Skt. katará-; from this word is Latin neuter<neqóteros, ‘neither one nor the other’. For sterí, missing, cf. Gmc. *sun-dr- (e.g. Ger. sonder), Gk ατερ (ater), O.Ind. sanutar; from sni, apart, cf.  Lat. sine ‘without’, Goth. sundrō, O.Sla. svene, O.Ir. sain ‘different’.

6.9.3. Adjectival pronouns include identity as well as oppositive pronouns; as, somós, the same, or aljos, onjos, the other.

NOTE. Such nominal forms, properly categorised as vaguely belonging to the field of pronuns, receive pronominal inflection. For adj. somós, equal, same, cf. Gmc. *samaz, Gk. ὁμός, ὁμοῦ, ὁμαλός, Skt. sama, Av. hama, O.C.S. самъ, O.Ir. som. The best attested pronominal adjective is aljos, aljā, aljom, other (cf. Gk. állos, Lat. alius, Goth. aljis, O.Ir. ail, Toch. B alyek).