These are the latest changes made to our reference book A Grammar of Modern Indo-European in Versions 3.40 to 3.45:
- Version 3.40 – Translation of proper names without a known Indo-European etymology into a purer Indo-European form; hence the terms France, French (also Frank), not left as MIE loan words Frankiā and Frankiskós, but transcribed from Germanic (Gmc. -f- < IE *-p-, Gmc. -k- < IE *-g-) as Prangiā, Prangiskós; likewise, Carlos as Górilos and not
Karlos, Czechia as Keghiā and not Tschexiā, etc. Also, etymological notes on Aryan, PIE ari(j)os, as well as Greek theos, ekklesia, or geo, and some verbal forms have been corrected.
- Version 3.41 -Transcription of output vowels from laryngeals in Greek loan words with a common PIE origin, like aner and onomn, now showing Europe’s Indo-European (i.e. non-laryngeal) version, as ner and nomn, and their derivatives.
- Version 3.42 – Armenian section of the Introduction chapter revised. The wrong information on the Graeco-Armenian question – today mostly seen as a classical and historical, more than linguistic, link -, has been corrected according to the latest articles on the subject.
- Version 3.43 – Introduction to the Proto-Indo-European language evolution timeline revised, and some more clarifying notes added: on the terms “Late Proto-Indo-European”, “Northern Indo-European” and “Northwestern or Europe’s Indo-European”. Also, about the criticism to the “language revival” concept used for proto-languages like PIE, some information was added on modern trends to call Modern Hebrew “Israeli” instead, due to differences with its supposed original language, Ancient Hebrew. On the concepts of European and Indo-European, when speakng in Indo-European.
- Version 3.44 – Revision of Greek loan word “Proto-”, “first”, transliterated as PIE “pro-w(a)-to-”, now Modern Indo-European (i.e. Europe’s Indo-European) “pr-mo-”, also from PIE stem “per-”, as it was this the common European term used in that sense, and even the basis for the dialectal (later modified) Greek term. Section on etymology notes revised accordingly.
- Version 3.45 – After rev. 3.43, a new page was necessarily created in the Introductory section, and there was thus some extra space, now filled up with translations of the Scheicher’s Fable into other reconstructed Indo-European proto-languages. Some titles of that section were revised, according to rev. 3.44.