Third Edition



Part I.

Language and Culture

Part II.

Phonology & Morphology

Part III.


Part IV.

Texts & Dictionary




Carlos Quiles                 

Fernando López-Menchero

Version 5.00 (April 2011)

© 2011 by Carlos Quiles

© 2011 by Fernando López-Menchero



Avda. Sta. María de la Cabeza, 3, E-LL, Badajoz 06001, Spain.

Badajoz – Leg. Dep. BA-145-0 (2006)  |  Sevilla – Leg. Dep. SE -4405-2007 U.E.

ISBN-13: 978-1461022138  |  ISBN-10: 1461022134

Information, translations and revisions of this title:  <http://indo-european.info/>


Printed in the European Union

Published by the Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/>

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Images taken or modified from Wikimedia projects are referenced with description and author-date, with usernames (or real names, if available), and links to the websites of origin in the Bibliography section, at the end of this book, unless they are in the public domain (PD).

This free (e)book is intended for nonprofit and educational purposes, its authors do not attribute themselves the authorship of the excerpts referenced, it is not intended for specialised readers in IE linguistics (so the potential market of the copyrighted works remains intact), and the amount and substantiality of the portions used in relation to the copyrighted works as a whole are neglectible. Therefore, the use of excerpts should fall within the fair use policy of international copyright laws. Since revisions of this free (e)book are published immediately, no material contained herein remains against the will and rights of authors or publishers.

The cover image has been modified from a photo of the Solvognen (The Sun Carriage) from the Bronze Age, at display at the National Museum (Nationalmuseet) in Denmark (Malene Thyssen 2004).For the epithet ‘wheel of the sun’, see §10.8.

While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Guide to the Reader


Considerations of Method

The Three-Dorsal Theory

The Loss of Laryngeals

Conventions Used in This Book

Writing System

Modern Indo-European

1. Introduction

1.1. The Indo-European Language Family

1.2. Traditional Views

1.3. The Theory of the Three Stages

1.4. The Proto-Indo-European Urheimat.

1.5. Other Archaeolinguistic Theories

1.6. Relationship to Other Languages

1.7. Indo-European Dialects

Schleicher’s Fable: From PIE to Modern English

1.7.1. Northern Indo-European dialects

1.7.2. Southern Indo-European Dialects

11.7.3. Anatolian Languages

2. Phonology

2.1. Classification of Sounds

2.2. Pronunciation

2.3. Syllables

2.4. Prosody

2.5. Accent

2.6. Vowel Change

2.7. Consonant Change

3. Words and their Forms

3.1. The Parts of Speech

3.2. Inflection

3.3. Root and Stem

3.4. Gender

3.5. Number

4. Nouns

4.1. Declension of Nouns

4.2. First Declension

4.2.1. First Declension Paradigm

4.2.2. First Declension in Examples

4.2.3. The Plural in the First Declension

4.3. Second Declension

4.3.1. Second Declension Paradigm

4.3.2. Second Declension in Examples

4.5.3. The Plural in the Second Declension

4.4. Third Declension

4.4.1. Third Declension Paradigm

4.4.2. In i, u

4.4.3. In Diphthong

4.4.4. The Plural in the Third and Fourth Declension

4.5. Fourth Declension

4.5.1. Fourth Declension Paradigm

4.5.2. In Occlusive, m, l

4.5.3. In r, n, s

4.5.4. The Plural in the Fourth Declension

4.6. Variable Nouns

4.7. Inflection Types

Excursus: Nominal Accent-Ablaut Patterns

4.8. Number Developments: The Dual

5. Adjectives

5.1. Inflection of Adjectives

5.2. The Motion

5.3. Adjective Specialisation

5.4. Comparison of Adjectives

5.5. Numerals

5.5.1. Classification of Numerals

5.5.2. Cardinals and Ordinals

5.5.3. Declension of Cardinals and Ordinals

5.5.4. Distributives

5.5.5. Numeral Adverbs

5.5.6. Multiplicatives

6. Pronouns

6.1. About the Pronouns

6.2. Personal Pronouns

6.3. Reflexive Pronouns

6.4. Possessive Pronouns

6.5. Anaphoric Pronouns

6.6. Demonstrative Pronouns

6.7. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns

6.7.1. Introduction

6.7.2. Compounds

6.7.3. Correlatives

6.8. Relative Pronouns

6.9. Other Pronouns

7. Verbs

7.1. Introduction

7.1.1. Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, Number

7.1.2. Voice

7.1.3. Moods

7.1.4. Aspect

7.1.5. Tenses of the Finite Verb

7.2. Forms of the Verb

7.2.1. The Verbal Stems

7.2.2. Verb-Endings

7.2.3. The Thematic Vowel

7.3. The Conjugations

7.4. The Four Stems

7.4.1. Tense-Stems and Verb Derivation

7.4.2. The Present Stem

7.4.3. The Aorist Stem

7.4.4. The Perfect Stem

7.5. Mood Stems

7.7. Noun and Adjective Forms

7.8. Conjugated Examples

7.8.1. Thematic Verbs

7.8.2. Athematic Inflection

7.8.3. Common PIE Stems

7.9. Verbal Composition

7.10. The Verbal Accent

8. Particles

8.1. Particles

8.2. Adverbs

8.3. Derivation of Adverbs

8.4. Prepositions

8.5. Conjunctions

8.6. Interjections

9. Morphosyntax

9.1. Verbal Morphosyntax

9.1.1. Person

9.1.2. Tense-Aspect and Mood

9.1.3. Voice

9.2. Nominal Morphosyntax

9.2.1. Nominative

9.2.3. Vocative

9.2.4. Accusative

9.2.5. Instrumental

9.2.6. Dative

9.2.7. Ablative

9.2.8. Genitive

9.2.9. Locative

9.2.10. Case Forms: Adverbial Elements

10. Sentence Syntax

10.1. The Sentence

10.1.1. Kinds of Sentences

10.1.2. Nominal Sentence

10.1.3. Verbal Sentence

10.2. Sentence Modifiers

10.2.1. Intonation Patterns

10.2.2. Sentence Delimiting Particles

10.3. Verbal Modifiers

10.3.1. Declarative Sentences

10.3.2. Interrogative Sentences

10.3.3. Negative Sentences

10.4. Nominal Modifiers

10.4.1. Adjective and Genitive Constructions

10.4.2. Compounds

10.4.3. Determiners in Nominal Phrases

10.4.4. Apposition

10.5. Modified forms of PIE Simple Sentences

10.5.1. Coordination

10.5.2. Complementation

10.5.3. Subordinate Clauses

10.6. Syntactic Categories

10.6.1. Particles as Syntactic Means of Expression

10.6.2. Marked Order in Sentences

10.6.3. Topicalisation with Reference to Emphasis

10.6.4. Wackernagel’s Law and the placement of clitics

10.7. Phrase and Sentence Prosody

10.8. Poetry

10.9. Names of persons


Appendix I: Indo-European in Use

I.1. Komtloqjom (Conversation)

I.2. Horatjosjo kanm (Horatii Carminvm)

I.3. The New Testament in Indo-European

I.3.1. PaterNos (Lord’s Prayer)

I.3.2. Slwēje Marijā (Hail Mary)

I.3.2. Kréddhēmi (Nicene Creed)

I.3.3. Noudós Sūnús (Parable of the Prodigal Son)

I.3.4. Newos Bheidhos (New Testament) – Jōhanēs, 1, 1-14

I.4. The Rigveda in Indo-European

Appendix II: Late Indo-European Lexicon

Formal Aspects

II.1. English – Late Indo-European

II.2. Late Indo-European – English

II.3. Etymology From Descendant Languages

Appendix III: In-Depth Analysis

III.1. Root Nouns

III.2. Indefinite, Demonstrative, and Personal Pronouns

III.2.1. Indefinite Pronouns

III.2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns

III.2.3. Personal Pronouns

III.3. Word Formation: Common PIE Lengthenings and Suffixes

Bibliography and Further Reading

Online Resources


Images and maps