Bibliography and Further Reading

This work is mainly a compilation of scholar knowledge, the output of two centuries of thorough research in comparative linguistics. It is highly recommended to consult other books on IE linguistics to learn Proto-Indo-European. Google books at <> is a great tool to read some parts of any of these works and decide whether it is interesting to buy them or not.

For this specific book we have used (among other, less important references) the following works (recommended further reading in boldface):

o    Adrados, Francisco R., Bernabé, Alberto, Mendoza, Julia. Manual de lingüística indoeuropea I, Ediciones Clásicas, 1995.

o    Adrados, Francisco R., Bernabé, Alberto, Mendoza, Julia. Manual de lingüística indoeuropea II, Ediciones Clásicas, 1996.

o    Adrados, Francisco R., Bernabé, Alberto, Mendoza, Julia. Manual de lingüística indoeuropea III, Ediciones Clásicas, 1998.

o    Baldi, Philips. The Foundations of Latin, Mouton de Gruyter, 2002.

o    Bauer, Brigitte. Archaic  Syntax in Indo-European: The Spread of Transitivity in Latin and French, Mouton de Gruyter, 2000.

o    Anthony, David W. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press, 2007.

o    Beekes, Robert S. P.  Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1995.

o    Benveniste, Émile. Le vocabulaire des institutions indo-européennes. Paris: Les Editions de Minuit, 1969.

o    Bryce, Trevor. The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

o    Buck, Carl Darling. Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933.

o    Cheung, Johnny: Etymological dictionary of the Iranian verb. Brill, 2007.

o    Clackson, James. Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

o    Cooper, Robert L. Language planning and social change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

o    Crépin, André. Problèmes de grammaire historique. Presses Universitaires de France, 1978.

o    Derksen, Rick: Etymological dictionary of the Slavic inherited lexicon. Brill, 2008.

o    Fortson, Benjamin W. Indo-European language and culture: an introduction. Wiley-Blackwell, 2004.

o    Ganesh Gadre, Vasant. Estructuras gramaticales de hindi y español. Madrid: CSIC, 1996.

o    Güterbock, Hans G., Hoffner, Harry A. The Hittite Dictionary, fascicle 1, volume 3. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1980.

o    Güterbock, Hans G., Hoffner, Harry A. The Hittite Dictionary, fascicle 2, volume 3. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1983.

o    Güterbock, Hans G., Hoffner, Harry A. The Hittite Dictionary, fascicle 3, volume 3. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1986.

o    Gvozdanovic, Jadranka. Indo-European Numerals. Mouton de Gruyter, 1991.

o    Jasanoff, Jay H. Hittite and the Indo-European verb. Oxford University Press, 2005.

o    Kerns, J. Alexander. A sketch of the Indo-European finite verb. Brill, 1972.

o    Kloekhorst, Alwin. Etymological dictionary of the Hittite inherited lexicon. Brill, 2008.

o    Krahe, Hans. Lingüística indoeuropea. Madrid: CSIC, 1953.

o    Kortlandt, Frederik Herman Henri: Italo-Celtic origins and prehistoric development of the Irish language. Rodopi, 2007.

o    Lazzeroni, Romano. La cultura indoeuropea. Bari: Gius, Laterza & Figli, 1998.

o    Lehmann, W. P. Theoretical Bases of Indo-european Linguistics. London: Routledge.

o    Lehmann, W.P.Proto-Indo-European Phonology. Austin: University of Texas Press and Linguistic Society of America, 1952

o    Lehmann, W.P. A Reader in Nineteenth-Century Historical Indo-European Linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1967

o    Lehmann, W. P. Proto-Indo-European Syntax. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1974

o    Lehmann, W., Zgusta, L. Schleicher’s tale after a century. In Festschrift for Oswald Szemerényi on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday. Amsterdam: B. Brogyanyi, 1979. p. 455–66

o    Lindemann, F.O. Introduction to the Laryngeal Theory, Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1987.

o    Lubotsky, Alexander, Sound law and analogy: papers in honor of Robert S.P. Beekes on the occasion of his 60th birthday, Rodopi, 1997.

o    Mallory, J.P., Adams, D.Q. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford University Press, USA, 2006 (Reprinted 2007).

o    Mallory, J.P., Adams, D.Q. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Routledge, 1997.

o    Martínez, Javier, de Vaan, Michiel. Introducción al avéstico. Madrid: Ediciones Clásicas, 2001.

o    Matasović, Ranko: Etymological dictionary of proto-Celtic. Brill, 2009.

o    Mayrhofer, Manfred. Indogermanische Grammatik, i/2: Lautlehre, Heidelberg: Winter, 1986.

o    Masson, Emilia. Les douze dieux de l’immortalité. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1989.

o    Meid, W. Archäeologie und Sprachwissenschaft. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität.

o    Meier-Brügger, Michael, Fritz, Matthias, Mayrhofer, Manfred. Indo-European Linguistics. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2003.

o    Miller, Gary. Latin suffixal derivatives in English and their Indo-European ancestry. USA: Oxford University Press, 2006.

o    Monier-Williams, Sir Monier, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymologically and Philologically arranged, Oxford University Press, 1899.

o    Penney, J.H.W., Indo-European Perspectives, Studies In Honour of Anna Morpurgo Davies, Oxford University Press, 2004.

o    Ramat, Anna Giacalone, Ramat, Paolo. Le lingue indoeuropee. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1993.

o    Renfrew, Colin. Archaeology and language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins. London: Jonathan Cape, 1987.

o    Ringe, Donald, et al. A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. USA: Oxford University Press, 2006.

o    Roberts, Edward A., Pastor, Bárbara. Diccionario etimológico indoeuropeo de la lengua española. Madrid: Alianza, 1996.

o    Renfrew, Colin. Arqueología y Lenguaje: La cuestión de los orígenes indoeuropeos. Barcelona: Crítica, 1990

o    Rix, Helmut, (ed.) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben: Die Wurzeln und ihre Primärstammbildungen, Second Edition. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag 2001.

o    Sánchez Salor, E. Semántica y sintaxis. La oración compuesta latina. Cáceres: Universidad de Extremadura, 1993.

o    Shields, K. A history of Indo-European Verb Morphology. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1992.

o    Sihler, Andrew L. New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

o    Szemerényi, Oswald. Einführung in die Vergleichende Sprachenwissenschaft. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1989.

o    Szemerényi, Oswald. Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

o    Tovar, Antonio. Antiguo Eslavo Eclesiástico. Madrid: Universidad Complutense, 1987.

o    Tucker, T.G., Etymological Dictionary of Latin, Ares Publishers, 1976

o    de Vaan, Michiel, de Vaan,Michiel Arnoud Cor: Etymological dictionary of Latin and the other Italic languages. Brill, 2008.

o    Villar, F. Los indoeuropeos y los orígenes de Europa. Madrid: Gredos, 1991.

o    Wackernagel, Jacob, Langslow, David: Lectures on syntax: with special reference to Greek, Latin, and Germanic. Oxford University Press, 2009.

o    Watkins, Calvert, The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 2000.

o    Watkins, Calvert, How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics. Oxford University Press, USA, 2001.

o    West, M.L. Indo-European Poetry and Myth. Oxford University Press, 2009.

o    Whitney, William Dwight. Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (reprint), 1924.


Online Resources

o     Indo-European resources and dictionary-translator at <>, managed by the Indo-European Language Association.

o     Indo-European Language Association: <>  and language resources at <>.

o     The Linguistics Research Center (LRC), University of Texas, at <> offers online books, lessons, texts, etc. on Proto-Indo-European and early Indo-European dialects.

o     The Indo-European Etymological Dictionary (IEED) at <>, managed by the Department of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University, with some etymological dictionaries of Indo-European dialects.

o     The Tower of Babel project at <>, a lexicon project oriented to Indo-European, Eurasiatic, Nostratic and other language families, with free software and PDFs for download.

o     Frederik Kortlandt’s personal website offers some of his publications online at <>.

o     The Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS), at <>.

o     The Digital Library Perseus Hopper at <>.


Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopaedia, and Wiktionary, are excellent sources of common knowledge. We want to thank to all contributors and to their founders. Even though the appropriate policy is to reference each work and their authors, it is impossible to trace back each excerpt to its origin. These are the articles whose excerpts are identifiable in this work – especially referring to IE dialects –, in order of appearance:

Indo-European languages <>

Kurgan hypothesis <>

Haplogroup R1a < >

Indo-Uralic: <>

Old European Hydronymy: <>

Germanic languages: <>

Romance languages: <>

Italic languages: <>

Celtic languages: <>

Proto-Celtic: <>

Italo-Celtic: <>

Slavic languages: <>

Baltic languages: <>

Balto-Slavic languages <>

Messapian language: <>

Venetic language: <>

Liburnian language: <>

Lusitanian language: <>

Greek language: <>

Proto-Greek language: <>

Armenian language: <>

Indo-Iranians: <>

Proto-Indo-Iranian: <>

Phrygian language: <>

Ancient Macedonian: <>

Anatolian languages: <>

Hittite language: <>

Luwian language: <>

PIE phonology: <>

PIE verb: <>


Images and maps

This is a list of Wikipedia or Wikimedia users, whose images have been used. Links are to their personal sites or to the image in particular, depending on their expressed preferences – or to ours, if not available. Reference is usually only to the latest contributor (or derivative image), unless the core work was clearly done before him/her. In order of appearance of their images:

Malene Thyssen:<>

Mirzali Zazaoğlu <>

Brianski: <>

Dbachmann: <>

Crates: <>

Cadenas2008: <>

Briangotts: <>

Hayden120: <>

ZyMOS: <>

Ewan ar Born: <>

Fabrice Philibert-Caillat:


Therexbanner: <>

Slovenski Volk: <>

MapMaster: <>

Alcides Pinto: <>

Fut.Perf. at Sunrise: <>

Marsyas: <>


Ivaşca Flavius: <>

Megistias: <>

Javier Fernandez-Vina: <>

Hendrik Tammen: <>