Corded Ware culture


Corded Ware culture horizons

The first horizon of Corded Ware culture appears in the Early Eneolithic Bubanj-Salcuţa-Krivodol cultural complex and other Old European cultures in the eastern Balkans only sporadically, possibly from influence of the Sredni Stog culture, at the end of the 5th millennium BC (ca. 4200 BC), in territories of autochthonous ceramic forms not associated with the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka expansion. This pottery developed in a western Pontic territory where corded ornament seems correlated with sheep herding. The spread of this pottery is clearly (and almost exclusively) identified with the Coţofeni group in the 2nd Corded Ware horizon, as part of the cultures of the Lower Danube and northern Bulgaria in the 4th millennium and the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. These cultures are connected with movements of steppe-related Cernavodă I society in the Danube delta, to the north into Coţofeni, and south into Ezerovo [Bulatović 2014].

Samples from the Balkans of the late 5th and middle 4th millennium, after the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka expansion, show steppe ancestry (see above). Also, a sample identified as outlier from Deriivka ca. 3500 BC shows both Caucasian hunter-gatherer and farmer ancestry [Mathieson et al. 2017], which illustrates the complexity of human interaction in this western Pontic region between the main (Middle and Late) Indo-European expansions.

The Corded Ware culture territory expanded from the Coţofeni territory to the south during the Eneolithic period, except for the central Balkans, where new steppe elements are noticed during this period. The Usatovo culture, settled in the territory of the Trypillian culture, replaced the Coţofeni culture at the time of the expansion of the third horizon of the Corded Ware culture into Central Europe. The spread of this classical period of the Corded Ware culture has been connected to the evolution of late Funnelbeaker culture infiltrated by late Trypillian groups, after which they could have entered into contacts with Yamna herders on the upper Dniester region ca. 2700-2600 BC [Anthony 2007][Gimbutas 1977]. However, no previous direct cultural connection has been found in this area with Yamna [Bulatović 2014].

There was a long-ranging connection between the north-west Pontic steppe area and the border of the Forest Zone up to the eastern Baltic area, centred on the Dniester-Bug limes (encompassing the Dniester, Dnieper, and Bug rivers), but also encompassing the areas between the Vistula and the Dnieper (including the Małopolska area), with different connecting routes to the north used by Old European – and especially Trypillian culture – societies influencing Baltic cultures of the steppe, forest-steppe and forest zones for millennia [Klochko and Kośko 2009][Szmyt 2013][Czebreszuk and Szmyt 2004][Kadrow and Zakościelna 1999].

The connection between pre-Caucasian (Maykop) and Late Trypillian cultures that had moved to the left bank of the Dnieper (see above) points not only to Caucasian imports, but to a likely Caucasian immigration in a series of small shifts or ‘shuttle’ movements, possibly with the aim of exchange, trade, spoils of war, borrowing of technological devices, etc. This migration is linked to the creation of “bridge” communities, like the Zhyvotylivska-Volchans’k cultural group, and the Late Trypillian Gordineşti group [Ivanova and Toschev 2015]. These migrations could account for the later steppe-related ancestry found in Corded Ware cultures [Allentoft et al. 2015][Haak et al. 2015][Mathieson et al. 2015], since it is defined by a certain admixture of Eastern European and Caucasian hunter-gatherer ancestry, not found in samples from western Yamna migrants.

The most recent connection of the north Pontic steppe to Central European areas came from Usatovo (which continued the previous Gordineşti group), whose migrants seem to have penetrated in the first half of the 3rd millennium BC northward up the Dniester, South Bug and Dnieper valleys, as Globular Amphorae and Corded Ware cultures expanded to the east beginning ca. 2900 BC, forming the Middle Dnieper culture in the forest-steppe zone around Kiev ca. 2800-2600 BC [Anthony 2007].

Eneolithic forest.jpg

Diachronic map of Eneolithic migrations ca. 4000-3100 BC [Anthony 2007][Szmyt 2013][Piezonka 2015], Uni-Köln.

On the other hand, while Corded Ware culture research is discussed as a purely Central-European phenomenon, recently obtained dates suggest that the appearance of Corded Ware in central Russia (either of early Fatyanovo or maybe proto-stages) may had begun from 2700-2600 onwards, with eastern influence found in the southern Baltic and Estonia, connecting cultures previously identified as non-Corded Ware to the emergence of the new cultural expansion, with continua proposed between late Comb Ware and Corded Ware pottery. The communication between Forest Zone hunter-gatherers had old roots, and Corded Ware chronology needs further refinement, because Corded Ware was present in the northern Baltic Sea region since ca. 2800 BC [Nordqvist 2016].

The most recent sample from Zvejnieki, dated ca. 2885 BC, just before or during the expansion of the third Corded Ware horizon, clusters quite closely with Yamna samples, revealing a break of the regional population with the samples from a thousand years earlier, which were closer to Eastern European hunger-gatherer ancestry [Mathieson et al. 2017].

R1a1a1b-Z645, split from R1a1a1-M417 ca. 3500 BC, shows a TMRCA of ca. 3000 BC, coinciding with the formation date for mainly-European subclades R1a1a1b1-Z283 and R1a1a1b1a-Z282, and mainly-Asian subclade R1a1a1b2-Z93. The common TMRCA for R1a1a1b1-Z283 and R1a1a1b1a-Z282 suggests an expansion at nearly the same time as peoples of Corded Ware cultures are supposed to have migrated east- and westward, reaching the Middle Elbe-Saale region, where most aDNA samples analysed come from, about 2750 BC. The common TMRCA of 2700 BC for modern Asian lineages gives support to a later successful expansion into Asia centred on the eastern part of the Pontic-Caspian steppes.

Y-DNA samples of haplogroup R1a-M420 (probably R1a1a1-M417) are found in central Corded Ware culture groups [Allentoft et al. 2015][Mathieson et al. 2015][Haak et al. 2008][Mittnik et al. 2017][Saag et al. 2017], with one sample in Bergrheinfeld (ca. 2647), two samples in Eulau (ca. 2600 BC), one sample[1] from Kyndelöse (ca. 2670 BC), seven samples from Esperstedt (one dated ca. 2430 BC and other six ca. 2275 BC), and two from the Battle Axe culture, one from Viby (ca. 2500 BC), and one from Ölsund (ca. 2350 BC). Two samples from Tiefbrunn of haplogroups R-M207 (ca. 2755 BC) and R1b1-L278 (ca. 2725 BC) are of dubious nature – the first could be R1a1a1-M417 or R1b1-L278, the second might correspond to older European hunter-gatherer lineages, or they might be associated with the expansion of Corded Ware cultures from the Balkans. Other non-R-M207 samples from central Corded Ware cultures include the two oldest ones, of IJ and G2a-P15 lineages, from Jagodno ca. 2800 BC [Gworys et al. 2013]; and one of haplogroup P-P295 in Esperstedt from ca. 2275 BC.

In the Baltic and the Forest zone, four samples are dated around 2500 BC: haplogroups R1a1a1b-Z645 and R1a1a1b1-Z283 in Kunila, and two samples of haplogroup R1a1a1b-Z645 in Ardu. These samples together with its previous presence in Usvyatyan culture (ca. 2500 BC) and in Naumovo and Sertaya II [Chekunova et al. 2014], and its continuity in later times suggest that R1a1a1b-Z645 lineages almost fully replaced the previous R1b-M343 lineages in the eastern Baltic around the time of the Corded Ware culture expansion.

The oldest R1a1a1-M417 lineages of Central Europe are found in early Corded Ware groups, while ancient DNA from Neolithic Linear Pottery (ca. 5500–3500 BC) and Globular Amphorae (ca. 3400-2800 BC) cultures have been found to correspond mainly to I2-M438 and G2a-P15 lineages, with no steppe-related ancestry in admixture analyses [Haak et al. 2015][Mathieson et al. 2017]. This raises the possibility of a wide and rapid spread of R1a1a1-M417, and especially R1a1a1b1-Z283 subclades in Europe [Underhill et al. 2015] associated with the expansion of the Corded Ware culture. The diversification of R1a1a1b2-Z93 in the Middle East and South Asia remains more obscure [Underhill et al. 2015]. However, in samples obtained from Estonia it was seen that admixture between Corded Ware culture farmers and Comb Ceramic culture hunter-gatherers may have been limited in males of R1a1a1-M417 lineages. Also, the presence of a genetic component associated with Caucasus hunter-gatherers – also present in Yamna migrants, Eastern hunter-gatherers, and individuals from the Estonian Comb Ceramic culture, means that the expansion of the Corded Ware culture cannot be seen as the sole means for the spread of this genetic component, at least in eastern Europe [Saag et al. 2017].


Modified file from recent papers on ancient samples from Eastern European, Southeastern European, Western European, and Bell Beaker cultures: Left: ADMIXTURE clustering analysis with k=8 showing ancient individuals. E/M/MLN, Early/Middle/Middle Late Neolithic; W/E/S/CHG, Western/Eastern/Scandinavian/Caucasus hunter-gatherers[Olalde et al. 2017]. Center: Supervised ADMIXTURE plot, modeling each ancient individual (one per row), as a mixture of populations represented by clusters containing Anatolian Neolithic (grey), Yamnaya from Samara (orange), EHG (red) and WHG (blue). Dates indicate approximate range of individuals in each population[Mathieson et al. 2017]. Right: Ancestral components in ancient individuals estimated by ADMIXTURE (k=11)[Mittnik et al. 2017].

The Corded Ware culture has been argued to practice exogamy – most adult women being of non-local origin – based on a recent work on diet and mobility [Sjogren, Price, and Kristiansen 2016], and mtDNA has been documented to be more varied among Corded Ware females than men [Lazaridis et al. 2014]. Exogamy is described as a well-established practice over a long period of time, and the origin of females has been linked to Neolithic cultures still residing on the higher elevations in the region shared with Corded Ware cultures [Kristiansen et al. 2017]. A violent picture has been proposed for the Corded Ware culture society [Haak et al. 2008], with warrior youth bands with seasonal activities, in a way similar to that documented in the Russian steppe from the Bronze Age onwards [Kristiansen et al. 2017].

Analysis of aDNA has revealed that the plague was a prehistoric disease, associated with the Eurasian steppes, and linked to the Corded Ware culture expansion [Rasmussen et al. 2015][Andrades Valtueña et al. 2017], which connected vast areas in east Europe in a relatively short period. This might have provided part of the ‘push’ for the migration of Corded Ware cultures [Anthony and Brown 2017], and might also account for part of the documented differences in population expansion between Corded Ware and Bell Beaker groups, and their demographic consequences.

copper-age-early-2-corded2.jpg Diachronic map of Copper Age migrations ca. 3100-2600 BC [Anthony 2007][Harrison and Heyd 2007][Sjogren, Price, and Kristiansen 2016][Heyd 2012][Heyd 2014].


  • [Allentoft et al. 2015] ^ 1 2 Allentoft, Morten E., Martin Sikora, Karl-Goran Sjogren, Simon Rasmussen, Morten Rasmussen, Jesper Stenderup, Peter B. Damgaard, Hannes Schroeder, Torbjorn Ahlstrom, Lasse Vinner, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Ashot Margaryan, Tom Higham, David Chivall, Niels Lynnerup, Lise Harvig, Justyna Baron, Philippe Della Casa, Pawel Dabrowski, Paul R. Duffy, Alexander V. Ebel, Andrey Epimakhov, Karin Frei, Miroslaw Furmanek, Tomasz Gralak, Andrey Gromov, Stanislaw Gronkiewicz, Gisela Grupe, Tamas Hajdu, Radoslaw Jarysz, Valeri Khartanovich, Alexandr Khokhlov, Viktoria Kiss, Jan Kolar, Aivar Kriiska, Irena Lasak, Cristina Longhi, George McGlynn, Algimantas Merkevicius, Inga Merkyte, Mait Metspalu, Ruzan Mkrtchyan, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Laszlo Paja, Gyorgy Palfi, Dalia Pokutta, Lukasz Pospieszny, T. Douglas Price, Lehti Saag, Mikhail Sablin, Natalia Shishlina, Vaclav Smrcka, Vasilii I. Soenov, Vajk Szeverenyi, Gusztav Toth, Synaru V. Trifanova, Liivi Varul, Magdolna Vicze, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Vladislav Zhitenev, Ludovic Orlando, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Soren Brunak, Rasmus Nielsen, Kristian Kristiansen, and Eske Willerslev. 2015. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature 522 (7555):167-172.
  • [Andrades Valtueña et al. 2017] ^ Andrades Valtueña, Aida, Alissa Mittnik, Felix M. Key, Wolfgang Haak, Raili Allmäe, Andrej Belinskij, Mantas Daubaras, Michal Feldman, Rimantas Jankauskas, Ivor Janković, Ken Massy, Mario Novak, Saskia Pfrengle, Sabine Reinhold, Mario Šlaus, Maria A. Spyrou, Anna Szecsenyi-Nagy, Mari Tõrv, Svend Hansen, Kirsten I. Bos, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Alexander Herbig, and Johannes Krause. 2017. The Stone Age Plague: 1000 years of Persistence in Eurasia. bioRxiv.
  • [Anthony 2007] ^ 1 2 3 4 Anthony, D. 2007. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
  • [Anthony and Brown 2017] ^ Anthony, D.W., and D. R. Brown. 2017. Molecular Archaeology and Indo-European linguistics: Impressions from new data. In Usque ad Radices: Indo-European Studies in Honour of Birgit Anette Olsen, edited by B. Simmelkjær, S. Hansen, A. Hyllested, A. R. Jørgensen, G. Kroonen, J. H. Larsson, B. N. Whitehead, T. Olander and T. M. Søborg. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
  • [Bulatović 2014] ^ 1 2 Bulatović, Aleksandar. 2014. Corded Ware in the Central and Southern Balkans: A Consequence of Cultural Interaction or an Indication of Ethnic Change? JIES 42 (1 & 2).
  • [Chekunova et al. 2014] ^ Chekunova, Е.М., N.V. Yartseva, М.К. Chekunov, and А.N. Мazurkevich. 2014. The First Results of the Genotyping of the Aboriginals and Human Bone Remains of the Archeological Memorials of the Upper Podvin’e. // Archeology of the lake settlements of IV—II Thousands BC: The chronology of cultures and natural environment and climatic rhythms. Paper read at Proceedings of the International Conference, Devoted to the 50-year Research of the Pile Settlements on the North-West of Russia., 13-15 November, at St. Petersburg.
  • [Czebreszuk and Szmyt 2004] ^ Czebreszuk, J., and M. Szmyt. 2004. Chronology of Central-European Influences within the Western Part of the Forest Zone during the 3rd Millenium BC. In Проблемы хронологии и этнокультурных взаимодействий в неолите Евразии, edited by V. I. Timofeev and G. I. Zayceva. Санкт-Петербург: ИИМК РАН.
  • [Gimbutas 1977] ^ Gimbutas, Marija. 1977. The first wave of eurasian pastoralists into copper age europe. JIES 5 (4):277-338.
  • [Gworys et al. 2013] ^ Gworys, Bohdan, Joanna Rosińczuk-Tonderys, Aleksander Chrószcz, Maciej Janeczek, Andrzej Dwojak, Justyna Bazan, Mirosław Furmanek, Tadeusz Dobosz, Małgorzata Bonar, Anna Jonkisz, and Ireneusz Całkosiński. 2013. Assessment of late Neolithic pastoralist's life conditions from the Wroclaw–Jagodno site (SW Poland) on the basis of physiological stress markers. Journal of Archaeological Science 40 (6):2621-2630.
  • [Haak et al. 2008] ^ 1 2 Haak, W., G. Brandt, H. N. de Jong, C. Meyer, R. Ganslmeier, V. Heyd, C. Hawkesworth, A. W. Pike, H. Meller, and K. W. Alt. 2008. Ancient DNA, Strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 (47):18226-31.
  • [Haak et al. 2015] ^ 1 2 Haak, W., I. Lazaridis, N. Patterson, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, B. Llamas, G. Brandt, S. Nordenfelt, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, Q. Fu, A. Mittnik, E. Banffy, C. Economou, M. Francken, S. Friederich, R. G. Pena, F. Hallgren, V. Khartanovich, A. Khokhlov, M. Kunst, P. Kuznetsov, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, N. Nicklisch, S. L. Pichler, R. Risch, M. A. Rojo Guerra, C. Roth, A. Szecsenyi-Nagy, J. Wahl, M. Meyer, J. Krause, D. Brown, D. Anthony, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, and D. Reich. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522 (7555):207-11.
  • [Harrison and Heyd 2007] ^ Harrison, Richard, and Volker Heyd. 2007. The Transformation of Europe in the Third Millennium BC: the example of ‘Le Petit-Chasseur I + III’ (Sion, Valais, Switzerland). Praehistorische Zeitschrift 82 (2).
  • [Heyd 2012] ^ Heyd, Volker. 2012. Yamnaya gropus and tumuli west of the Black Sea. Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée. Série recherches archéologiques 58 (1):535-555.
  • [Heyd 2014] ^ Heyd, Volker. 2014. Families, Prestige Goods, Warriors & Complex Societies: Beaker Groups of the 3rd Millennium cal BC Along the Upper & Middle Danube. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 73:327-379.
  • [Ivanova and Toschev 2015] ^ Ivanova, S.V., and G. N. Toschev. 2015. The Middle-Dniester Cultural Contact Area of Early Metal Age Societies. The Frontier of Pontic and Baltic Drainage Basins in the 4Th/3Rd-2Nd Millennium Bc. In Baltic-Pontic Studies.
  • [Kadrow and Zakościelna 1999] ^ Kadrow, S., and Anna Zakościelna. 1999. An outline of the evolution of Danubian cultures in Małopolska and western Urkraine. Baltic-Pontic Studies 9:187-255.
  • [Klochko and Kośko 2009] ^ Klochko, V. I., and A. Kośko. 2009. The societies of Corded Ware cultures and those of Black Sea steppes (Yamnaya and Catacomb Grave cultures) in the route network between the Baltic and Black Seas. Baltic-Pontic-Studies 14:269-301.
  • [Kristiansen et al. 2017] ^ 1 2 Kristiansen, Kristian, Morten E. Allentoft, Karin M. Frei, Rune Iversen, Niels N. Johannsen, Guus Kroonen, Łukasz Pospieszny, T. Douglas Price, Simon Rasmussen, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Martin Sikora, and Eske Willerslev. 2017. Re-theorising mobility and the formation of culture and language among the Corded Ware Culture in Europe. Antiquity 91 (356):334-347.
  • [Lazaridis et al. 2014] ^ Lazaridis, I., N. Patterson, A. Mittnik, G. Renaud, S. Mallick, K. Kirsanow, P. H. Sudmant, J. G. Schraiber, S. Castellano, M. Lipson, B. Berger, C. Economou, R. Bollongino, Q. Fu, K. I. Bos, S. Nordenfelt, H. Li, C. de Filippo, K. Prufer, S. Sawyer, C. Posth, W. Haak, F. Hallgren, E. Fornander, N. Rohland, D. Delsate, M. Francken, J. M. Guinet, J. Wahl, G. Ayodo, H. A. Babiker, G. Bailliet, E. Balanovska, O. Balanovsky, R. Barrantes, G. Bedoya, H. Ben-Ami, J. Bene, F. Berrada, C. M. Bravi, F. Brisighelli, G. B. Busby, F. Cali, M. Churnosov, D. E. Cole, D. Corach, L. Damba, G. van Driem, S. Dryomov, J. M. Dugoujon, S. A. Fedorova, I. Gallego Romero, M. Gubina, M. Hammer, B. M. Henn, T. Hervig, U. Hodoglugil, A. R. Jha, S. Karachanak-Yankova, R. Khusainova, E. Khusnutdinova, R. Kittles, T. Kivisild, W. Klitz, V. Kucinskas, A. Kushniarevich, L. Laredj, S. Litvinov, T. Loukidis, R. W. Mahley, B. Melegh, E. Metspalu, J. Molina, J. Mountain, K. Nakkalajarvi, D. Nesheva, T. Nyambo, L. Osipova, J. Parik, F. Platonov, O. Posukh, V. Romano, F. Rothhammer, I. Rudan, R. Ruizbakiev, H. Sahakyan, A. Sajantila, A. Salas, E. B. Starikovskaya, A. Tarekegn, D. Toncheva, S. Turdikulova, I. Uktveryte, O. Utevska, R. Vasquez, M. Villena, M. Voevoda, C. A. Winkler, L. Yepiskoposyan, P. Zalloua, T. Zemunik, A. Cooper, C. Capelli, M. G. Thomas, A. Ruiz-Linares, S. A. Tishkoff, L. Singh, K. Thangaraj, R. Villems, D. Comas, R. Sukernik, M. Metspalu, M. Meyer, E. E. Eichler, J. Burger, M. Slatkin, S. Paabo, J. Kelso, D. Reich, and J. Krause. 2014. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513 (7518):409-13.
  • [Mathieson et al. 2015] ^ 1 2 Mathieson, I., I. Lazaridis, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, N. Patterson, S. A. Roodenberg, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, D. Fernandes, M. Novak, K. Sirak, C. Gamba, E. R. Jones, B. Llamas, S. Dryomov, J. Pickrell, J. L. Arsuaga, J. M. de Castro, E. Carbonell, F. Gerritsen, A. Khokhlov, P. Kuznetsov, M. Lozano, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, M. A. Guerra, J. Roodenberg, J. M. Verges, J. Krause, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, D. Brown, D. Anthony, C. Lalueza-Fox, W. Haak, R. Pinhasi, and D. Reich. 2015. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians. Nature 528 (7583):499-503.
  • [Mathieson et al. 2017] ^ 1 2 3 4 Mathieson, Iain, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Cosimo Posth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Iñigo Olade, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Olivia Cheronet, Daniel Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Beatriz Gamarra, Gloria González Fortes, Wolfgang Haak, Eadaoin Harney, Ben Krause-Kyora, Isil Kucukkalipci, Megan Michel, Alissa Mittnik, Kathrin Nägele, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nick Patterson, Saskia Pfrengle, Kendra Sirak, Kristin Stewardson, Stefania Vai, Stefan Alexandrov, Kurt W. Alt, Radian Andreescu, Dragana Antonović, Abigail Ash, Nadezhda Atanassova, Krum Bacvarov, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Hervé Bocherens, Michael Bolus, Adina Boroneanţ, Yavor Boyadzhiev, Alicja Budnik, Josip Burmaz, Stefan Chohadzhiev, Nicholas J. Conard, Richard Cottiaux, Maja Čuka, Christophe Cupillard, Dorothée G. Drucker, Nedko Elenski, Michael Francken, Borislava Galabova, Georgi Ganetovski, Bernard Gely, Tamás Hajdu, Veneta Handzhyiska, Katerina Harvati, Thomas Higham, Stanislav Iliev, Ivor Janković, Ivor Karavanić, Douglas J. Kennett, Darko Komšo, Alexandra Kozak, Damian Labuda, Martina Lari, Catalin Lazar, Maleen Leppek, Krassimir Leshtakov, Domenico Lo Vetro, Dženi Los, Ivaylo Lozanov, Maria Malina, Fabio Martini, Kath McSweeney, Harald Meller, Marko Menđušić, Pavel Mirea, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Vanya Petrova, T. Douglas Price, Angela Simalcsik, Luca Sineo, Mario Šlaus, Vladimir Slavchev, Petar Stanev, Andrej Starović, Tamás Szeniczey, Sahra Talamo, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Corinne Thevenet, Ivan Valchev, Frédérique Valentin, Sergey Vasilyev, Fanica Veljanovska, Svetlana Venelinova, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, Bence Viola, Cristian Virag, Joško Zaninović, Steve Zäuner, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Giulio Catalano, Raiko Krauß, David Caramelli, Gunita Zariņa, Bisserka Gaydarska, Malcolm Lillie, Alexey G. Nikitin, Inna Potekhina, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Dušan Borić, Clive Bonsall, Johannes Krause, Ron Pinhasi, and David Reich. 2017. The Genomic History Of Southeastern Europe. bioRxiv.
  • [Mittnik et al. 2017] ^ 1 2 Mittnik, Alissa, Chuan-Chao Wang, Saskia Pfrengle, Mantas Daubaras, Gunita Zariņa, Fredrik Hallgren, Raili Allmäe, Valery Khartanovich, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Anja Furtwängler, Aida Andrades Valtueña, Michal Feldman, Christos Economou, Markku Oinonen, Andrejs Vasks, Mari Tõrv, Oleg Balanovsky, David Reich, Rimantas Jankauskas, Wolfgang Haak, Stephan Schiffels, and Johannes Krause. 2017. The Genetic History of Northern Europe. bioRxiv.
  • [Nordqvist 2016] ^ Nordqvist, Kerkko. 2016. From separation to interaction: Corded Ware in the Eastern Gulf of Finland. Acta Archaeologica 87 (1):49-84.
  • [Olalde et al. 2017] ^ Olalde, Iñigo, Selina Brace, Morten E. Allentoft, Ian Armit, Kristian Kristiansen, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Thomas Booth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Alissa Mittnik, Eveline Altena, Mark Lipson, Iosif Lazaridis, Nick J. Patterson, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Yoan Diekmann, Zuzana Faltyskova, Daniel M. Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Eadaoin Harney, Peter de Knijff, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kristin Stewardson, Alistair Barclay, Kurt W. Alt, Azucena Avilés Fernández, Eszter Bánffy, Maria Bernabò-Brea, David Billoin, Concepción Blasco, Clive Bonsall, Laura Bonsall, Tim Allen, Lindsey Büster, Sophie Carver, Laura Castells Navarro, Oliver Edward Craig, Gordon T. Cook, Barry Cunliffe, Anthony Denaire, Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy, Natasha Dodwell, Michal Ernée, Christopher Evans, Milan Kuchařík, Joan Francès Farré, Harry Fokkens, Chris Fowler, Michiel Gazenbeek, Rafael Garrido Pena, María Haber-Uriarte, Elżbieta Haduch, Gill Hey, Nick Jowett, Timothy Knowles, Ken Massy, Saskia Pfrengle, Philippe Lefranc, Olivier Lemercier, Arnaud Lefebvre, Joaquín Lomba Maurandi, Tona Majó, Jacqueline I. McKinley, Kathleen McSweeney, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Alessandra Modi, Gabriella Kulcsár, Viktória Kiss, András Czene, Róbert Patay, Anna Endródi, Kitti Köhler, Tamás Hajdu, João Luís Cardoso, Corina Liesau, Michael Parker Pearson, Piotr Włodarczak, T. Douglas Price, Pilar Prieto, Pierre-Jérôme Rey, Patricia Ríos, Roberto Risch, Manuel A. Rojo Guerra, Aurore Schmitt, Joël Serralongue, Ana Maria Silva, Václav Smrčka, Luc Vergnaud, João Zilhão, David Caramelli, Thomas Higham, Volker Heyd, Alison Sheridan, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Mark G. Thomas, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Ron Pinhasi, Johannes Krause, Wolfgang Haak, Ian Barnes, Carles Lalueza-Fox, and David Reich. 2017. The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest Europe. bioRxiv.
  • [Piezonka 2015] ^ Piezonka, Henny. 2015. Older than the farmers' pots? Hunter-gatherer ceramics east of the Baltic Sea. In The Dąbki Site in Pomerania and the Neolithisation of the North European Lowlands (c. 5000-3000 calBC), edited by J. Kabaciński, S. Hatz, R. D. C. M. and T. Terberger. Rahden/Westf.: Marie Leidorf.
  • [Rasmussen et al. 2015] ^ Rasmussen, Simon, Morten Erik Allentoft, Kasper Nielsen, Ludovic Orlando, Martin Sikora, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Anders Gorm Pedersen, Mikkel Schubert, Alex Van Dam, Christian Moliin Outzen Kapel, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Søren Brunak, Pavel Avetisyan, Andrey Epimakhov, Mikhail Viktorovich Khalyapin, Artak Gnuni, Aivar Kriiska, Irena Lasak, Mait Metspalu, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Andrei Gromov, Dalia Pokutta, Lehti Saag, Liivi Varul, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Robert A Foley, Marta Mirazón Lahr, Rasmus Nielsen, Kristian Kristiansen, and Eske Willerslev. 2015. Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago. Cell 163 (3):571-582.
  • [Saag et al. 2017] ^ 1 2 Saag, Lehti, Liivi Varul, Christiana Lyn Scheib, Jesper Stenderup, Morten E Allentoft, Lauri Saag, Luca Pagani, Maere Reidla, Kristiina Tambets, Ene Metspalu, Aivar Kriiska, Eske Willerslev, Toomas Kivisild, and Mait Metspalu. 2017. Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the Steppe. bioRxiv.
  • [Szmyt 2013] ^ 1 2 Szmyt, Marzena. 2013. The circulation of People and Ideas in the Baltic and Pontic Areas during 3rd millennium BC.
  • [Underhill et al. 2015] ^ 1 2 Underhill, P. A., G. D. Poznik, S. Rootsi, M. Jarve, A. A. Lin, J. Wang, B. Passarelli, J. Kanbar, N. M. Myres, R. J. King, J. Di Cristofaro, H. Sahakyan, D. M. Behar, A. Kushniarevich, J. Sarac, T. Saric, P. Rudan, A. K. Pathak, G. Chaubey, V. Grugni, O. Semino, L. Yepiskoposyan, A. Bahmanimehr, S. Farjadian, O. Balanovsky, E. K. Khusnutdinova, R. J. Herrera, J. Chiaroni, C. D. Bustamante, S. R. Quake, T. Kivisild, and R. Villems. 2015. The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a. Eur J Hum Genet 23 (1):124-31.


  1. Published as corresponding to Nordic Middle Neolithic culture, additional information by Vladimir Tagankin revealed a branch typical of modern Nordic (R1a1a1b1a3-Z284) subclades, and a new date of ca. 2475 BC, including reduction for high marine signal.