Late Indo-European expansion
Anthony’s third migration wave of ca. 3000-2800 BC [Anthony 2013] must include the expansion of peoples of haplogroups R1b1a1a2a2-Z2103 and R1b1a1a2a1-L51 into Europe.
The most obvious material division within the early Yamna horizon was between east and west. According to forming and TMRCA dates of R1b1a1a2a2-Z2103 lineages, communities carrying different R1b1a1a2a2-Z2103 subclades might have already developed differentiated groups based on clans within the Volga–Ural–North Caucasian zone, a part of the more mobile eastern Yamna pastoral economy [Anthony 2007]. In a central region a late sample at Stalingrad Quarry ca. 2675 BC shows a subclade R1b1a1a2a2c-Z2106 [Allentoft et al. 2015].
The remaining North-West Indo-European community – separated from Pre-Tocharian speakers – lived more likely around the South Bug – Lower Don steppe, and it is possible that their lineages were dominated by R1b1a1a2a1-L51 lineages, which had expanded probably by 3900 BC according to its TMRCA, and to the same time of formation of subclade R1b1a1a2a1a-L151.
The western community expanded west possibly early within the southern stream of the third migration wave (with a TMRCA ca. 2800 BC for R1b1a1a2a1a-L151), from the Bug-Dnieper-Azov steppes into the lower Danube valley and Bulgaria, pushing farther up the Danube to the middle Danube valley in eastern Hungary through an Old Europe in crisis – contemporary with late Baden / Cernavodă III [Anthony 2013][Anthony 2007].
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