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Palaeolithic

From Indo-European.info

A sample from the Mal’ta boy dated ca. 22350 BC shows that his paternal lineage diverged from haplogroup R-M207* shortly before its split into R1-M173 and R2-M479 subclades[Raghavan et al. 2014].

His ancestry has been revealed to have contributed substantially to the genetic ancestry of Siberians, Native Americans, and Bronze Age Yamna individuals[Lazaridis et al. 2016], being close to modern-day Native Americans, Kets, Mansi, Nganasans, and Yukaghirs[Flegontov et al. 2016].

Haplogroup R-M207 is itself descended from a common ancient lineage shared with the Ust’-Ishim man (ca. 43070 BC), probably belonging to the first wave of humans to migrate out of Africa into Eurasia[Fu et al. 2014].

Main subclades include R1b-M343 and R1a-M420, whose development is traced to the Pontic-Caspian steppes in the Younger Dryas and Boreal periods, and can be related to the reconstructed Palaeolithic languages.

References

  • [Flegontov et al. 2016] ^ Flegontov, P., P. Changmai, A. Zidkova, M. D. Logacheva, N. E. Altinisik, O. Flegontova, M. S. Gelfand, E. S. Gerasimov, E. E. Khrameeva, O. P. Konovalova, T. Neretina, Y. V. Nikolsky, G. Starostin, V. V. Stepanova, I. V. Travinsky, M. Triska, P. Triska, and T. V. Tatarinova. 2016. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry. Sci Rep 6:20768.
  • [Fu et al. 2014] ^ Fu, Q., H. Li, P. Moorjani, F. Jay, S. M. Slepchenko, A. A. Bondarev, P. L. Johnson, A. Aximu-Petri, K. Prufer, C. de Filippo, M. Meyer, N. Zwyns, D. C. Salazar-Garcia, Y. V. Kuzmin, S. G. Keates, P. A. Kosintsev, D. I. Razhev, M. P. Richards, N. V. Peristov, M. Lachmann, K. Douka, T. F. Higham, M. Slatkin, J. J. Hublin, D. Reich, J. Kelso, T. B. Viola, and S. Paabo. 2014. Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia. Nature 514 (7523):445-9.
  • [Lazaridis et al. 2016] ^ Lazaridis, I., D. Nadel, G. Rollefson, D. C. Merrett, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, D. Fernandes, M. Novak, B. Gamarra, K. Sirak, S. Connell, K. Stewardson, E. Harney, Q. Fu, G. Gonzalez-Fortes, E. R. Jones, S. A. Roodenberg, G. Lengyel, F. Bocquentin, B. Gasparian, J. M. Monge, M. Gregg, V. Eshed, A. S. Mizrahi, C. Meiklejohn, F. Gerritsen, L. Bejenaru, M. Bluher, A. Campbell, G. Cavalleri, D. Comas, P. Froguel, E. Gilbert, S. M. Kerr, P. Kovacs, J. Krause, D. McGettigan, M. Merrigan, D. A. Merriwether, S. O'Reilly, M. B. Richards, O. Semino, M. Shamoon-Pour, G. Stefanescu, M. Stumvoll, A. Tonjes, A. Torroni, J. F. Wilson, L. Yengo, N. A. Hovhannisyan, N. Patterson, R. Pinhasi, and D. Reich. 2016. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature 536 (7617):419-24.
  • [Raghavan et al. 2014] ^ Raghavan, M., P. Skoglund, K. E. Graf, M. Metspalu, A. Albrechtsen, I. Moltke, S. Rasmussen, T. W. Stafford, Jr., L. Orlando, E. Metspalu, M. Karmin, K. Tambets, S. Rootsi, R. Magi, P. F. Campos, E. Balanovska, O. Balanovsky, E. Khusnutdinova, S. Litvinov, L. P. Osipova, S. A. Fedorova, M. I. Voevoda, M. DeGiorgio, T. Sicheritz-Ponten, S. Brunak, S. Demeshchenko, T. Kivisild, R. Villems, R. Nielsen, M. Jakobsson, and E. Willerslev. 2014. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans. Nature 505 (7481):87-91.