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Palaeolithic languages

From Indo-European.info

Indo-European has been described as “a branch of Indo-Uralic which was transformed under the influence of a Caucasian substratum”[Kortlandt 2002], which would imply an invasion of Indo-Uralic-speaking R1b1a1a-P297 lineages to a territory of previous Caucasian hunter-gatherers. Such Caucasian influence has been supported recently by the finding of a genetic contribution of a pocket of Caucasus hunter-gatherers (ca. 11000–8000 BC), who seem to have weathered much of the last Ice Age in apparent isolation[Jones et al. 2015].

Long-ranging language relationships are difficult to prove. If Uralic and Indo-European shared a common ancestor – Indo-Uralic[Kloekhorst 2008] –, it should be associated to the post-Swiderian east European communities with a majority of R1b1a1a-P297 lineages. If these people and their language expanded from central and south-east European communities with a majority of R1b1a-L754 lineages, certain hypothetic linguistic communities can be proposed:

It would be conceivable but controversial[Prósper 2013], for example, to give credit to the nature of Proto-Basque as of Pre-Indo-European substratum[Forni 2013][Blevins 2015], beyond pre- and post-Roman IE superstrata[Koch 2013], based on the presence of an Iberian Eneolithic sample of R1b1a-L754 (xR1b1a1a2-M269, V88-equivalent) at Els Trocs ca. 5180 BC[Haak et al. 2015], and its potential continuity in north Iberia at least until the Bell Beaker expansion[Mathieson et al. 2017].

Proto-Afroasiatic has been proposed to have emerged in the southern fringe of the Sahara in an “upside-down” view[Bender 2007], while R1b1a2-V88 lineages (and specifically its subclade R1b1a2b1b1a-V69) have been found in north and central Africa, mainly in Chadic-speaking populations, but also in west Egypt and in the Middle East[Cruciani et al. 2010]. The Sahara was an important site of occupation and crossing of hominids during the Holocene, with Fezzan-Chad-Chotts, and Chad-Chotts-Ahnet-Moyer megalake green corridors connecting northern and central Africa – with gradual desiccation of the desert, until ca. 4000 BC[Drake et al. 2011].

1000px-Nostratic tree.svg.png
There are thus potential links of linguistic macro-groups to the expansion of certain lineages: one could thus make a simplistic association of Indo-Uralic (and Paleo-Siberian) with R1a-M420 lineages, Dravidic (and potentially Kartvelian and Altaic) with R2-M479 lineages, and Afroasiatic with R1b-M343 lineages, all departing from an older Nostratic language [Bomhard 2008] associated then with haplogroup R-M207. However, macro-languages are speculative, and their relationships highly controversial, with such ancient archaeological cultures – and their relationship to population movements – quite difficult to ascertain. A more speculative relation with an older Borean macro-family[Gell-Mann, Peiros, and Starostin 2009], for example, could be explained by certain expansions of P1-M45 lineages, which could in turn help determine dialectal evolutions.

palaeolithic2_cut.jpg Diachronic map of Palaeolithic migrations.

References

  • [Bender 2007] ^ Bender, M. Lionel. 2007. The Afrasian lexion reconsidered. In Studies in Semitic and Afroasiatic Linguistics Presented to Gene B. Gragg, edited by C. L. Miller. Illinois: The University of Chicago.
  • [Blevins 2015] ^ Blevins, Juliette. 2015. Advances in Proto-Basque Reconstruction and the Proto-Indo-European-Euskara Hypothesis. In Harvard Linguistics Circle. Harvard Linguistics.
  • [Bomhard 2008] ^ Bomhard, A. R. 2008. Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic: Comparative Phonology, Morphology, and Vocabulary. Edited by A. Lubotsky. Vol. 1, Leiden Indo-European etymological dictionary series. Leiden: Brill.
  • [Cruciani et al. 2010] ^ Cruciani, F., B. Trombetta, D. Sellitto, A. Massaia, G. Destro-Bisol, E. Watson, E. Beraud Colomb, J. M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, and R. Scozzari. 2010. Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages. Eur J Hum Genet 18 (7):800-7.
  • [Drake et al. 2011] ^ Drake, Nick A., Roger M. Blench, Simon J. Armitage, Charlie S. Bristow, and Kevin H. White. 2011. Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (2):458-462. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1012231108
  • [Forni 2013] ^ Forni, Gianfranco. 2013. Evidence for Basque as an Indo-European Language. JIES 41 (1 & 2):1-142.
  • [Gell-Mann, Peiros, and Starostin 2009] ^ Gell-Mann, Murray, Ilia Peiros, and George Starostin. 2009. Distant Language Relationship: The Current Perspective. Journal of Language Relationship 1:13-30.
  • [Haak et al. 2015] ^ Haak, W., I. Lazaridis, N. Patterson, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, B. Llamas, G. Brandt, S. Nordenfelt, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, Q. Fu, A. Mittnik, E. Banffy, C. Economou, M. Francken, S. Friederich, R. G. Pena, F. Hallgren, V. Khartanovich, A. Khokhlov, M. Kunst, P. Kuznetsov, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, N. Nicklisch, S. L. Pichler, R. Risch, M. A. Rojo Guerra, C. Roth, A. Szecsenyi-Nagy, J. Wahl, M. Meyer, J. Krause, D. Brown, D. Anthony, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, and D. Reich. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522 (7555):207-11.
  • [Jones et al. 2015] ^ Jones, E. R., G. Gonzalez-Fortes, S. Connell, V. Siska, A. Eriksson, R. Martiniano, R. L. McLaughlin, M. Gallego Llorente, L. M. Cassidy, C. Gamba, T. Meshveliani, O. Bar-Yosef, W. Muller, A. Belfer-Cohen, Z. Matskevich, N. Jakeli, T. F. Higham, M. Currat, D. Lordkipanidze, M. Hofreiter, A. Manica, R. Pinhasi, and D. G. Bradley. 2015. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians. Nat Commun 6:8912.
  • [Kloekhorst 2008] ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin. 2008. Some Indo-Uralic Aspects of Hittite. JIES 36 (1 & 2).
  • [Koch 2013] ^ Koch, John T. 2013. Is Basque an Indo-European Language? JIES 41 (1 & 2).
  • [Kortlandt 2002] ^ Kortlandt, Frederik. 2002. The Indo-Uralic verb. In Finno-Ugrians and Indo-Europeans: Linguistic and literary contacts. Maastricht: Shaker.
  • [Mathieson et al. 2017] ^ Mathieson, Iain, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Cosimo Posth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Iñigo Olade, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Olivia Cheronet, Daniel Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Beatriz Gamarra, Gloria González Fortes, Wolfgang Haak, Eadaoin Harney, Ben Krause-Kyora, Isil Kucukkalipci, Megan Michel, Alissa Mittnik, Kathrin Nägele, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nick Patterson, Saskia Pfrengle, Kendra Sirak, Kristin Stewardson, Stefania Vai, Stefan Alexandrov, Kurt W. Alt, Radian Andreescu, Dragana Antonović, Abigail Ash, Nadezhda Atanassova, Krum Bacvarov, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Hervé Bocherens, Michael Bolus, Adina Boroneanţ, Yavor Boyadzhiev, Alicja Budnik, Josip Burmaz, Stefan Chohadzhiev, Nicholas J. Conard, Richard Cottiaux, Maja Čuka, Christophe Cupillard, Dorothée G. Drucker, Nedko Elenski, Michael Francken, Borislava Galabova, Georgi Ganetovski, Bernard Gely, Tamás Hajdu, Veneta Handzhyiska, Katerina Harvati, Thomas Higham, Stanislav Iliev, Ivor Janković, Ivor Karavanić, Douglas J. Kennett, Darko Komšo, Alexandra Kozak, Damian Labuda, Martina Lari, Catalin Lazar, Maleen Leppek, Krassimir Leshtakov, Domenico Lo Vetro, Dženi Los, Ivaylo Lozanov, Maria Malina, Fabio Martini, Kath McSweeney, Harald Meller, Marko Menđušić, Pavel Mirea, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Vanya Petrova, T. Douglas Price, Angela Simalcsik, Luca Sineo, Mario Šlaus, Vladimir Slavchev, Petar Stanev, Andrej Starović, Tamás Szeniczey, Sahra Talamo, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Corinne Thevenet, Ivan Valchev, Frédérique Valentin, Sergey Vasilyev, Fanica Veljanovska, Svetlana Venelinova, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, Bence Viola, Cristian Virag, Joško Zaninović, Steve Zäuner, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Giulio Catalano, Raiko Krauß, David Caramelli, Gunita Zariņa, Bisserka Gaydarska, Malcolm Lillie, Alexey G. Nikitin, Inna Potekhina, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Dušan Borić, Clive Bonsall, Johannes Krause, Ron Pinhasi, and David Reich. 2017. The Genomic History Of Southeastern Europe. bioRxiv.
  • [Prósper 2013] ^ Prósper, Blanca María. 2013. Is Basque an Indo-European language? Possibilities and limits of the comparative method when applied to isolates. JIES 41 (1 & 2):239-245.


See also