Indo-European has been described as “a branch of Indo-Uralic which was transformed under the influence of a Caucasian substratum”[Kortlandt 2002], which would imply an invasion of Indo-Uralic-speaking R1b1a1a-P297 lineages to a territory of previous Caucasian hunter-gatherers. Such Caucasian influence has been supported recently by the finding of a genetic contribution of a pocket of Caucasus hunter-gatherers (ca. 11000–8000 BC), who seem to have weathered much of the last Ice Age in apparent isolation[Jones et al. 2015].
Long-ranging language relationships are difficult to prove. If Uralic and Indo-European shared a common ancestor – Indo-Uralic[Kloekhorst 2008] –, it should be associated to the post-Swiderian east European communities with a majority of R1b1a1a-P297 lineages. If these people and their language expanded from central and south-east European communities with a majority of R1b1a-L754 lineages, certain hypothetic linguistic communities can be proposed:
It would be conceivable but controversial[Prósper 2013], for example, to give credit to the nature of Proto-Basque as of Pre-Indo-European substratum[Forni 2013][Blevins 2015], beyond pre- and post-Roman IE superstrata[Koch 2013], based on the presence of an Iberian Eneolithic sample of R1b1a-L754 (xR1b1a1a2-M269, V88-equivalent) at Els Trocs ca. 5180 BC[Haak et al. 2015], and its potential continuity in north Iberia at least until the Bell Beaker expansion[Mathieson et al. 2017].
Proto-Afroasiatic has been proposed to have emerged in the southern fringe of the Sahara in an “upside-down” view[Bender 2007], while R1b1a2-V88 lineages (and specifically its subclade R1b1a2b1b1a-V69) have been found in north and central Africa, mainly in Chadic-speaking populations, but also in west Egypt and in the Middle East[Cruciani et al. 2010]. The Sahara was an important site of occupation and crossing of hominids during the Holocene, with Fezzan-Chad-Chotts, and Chad-Chotts-Ahnet-Moyer megalake green corridors connecting northern and central Africa – with gradual desiccation of the desert, until ca. 4000 BC[Drake et al. 2011].[Bomhard 2008] associated then with haplogroup R-M207. However, macro-languages are speculative, and their relationships highly controversial, with such ancient archaeological cultures – and their relationship to population movements – quite difficult to ascertain. A more speculative relation with an older Borean macro-family[Gell-Mann, Peiros, and Starostin 2009], for example, could be explained by certain expansions of P1-M45 lineages, which could in turn help determine dialectal evolutions.
Diachronic map of Palaeolithic migrations.
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