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Paleo-Balkan

From Indo-European.info

The expansion of Balkan Indo-European

Later samples of R1b1a1a2a2-Z2103 subclades suggest a genetic continuity of early Khvalynsk population in the pastoral groups within Volga–Ural–North Caucasian steppe: early Yamna in Ekaterinovka ca. 2840 BC, late Yamna in Temrta IV ca. 2760 BC, and two early samples from the Poltavka culture in Lopatino II ca. 2770 and in Kutuluk ca. 2680 BC[Mathieson et al. 2015].

Eastern groups – if only because of their location within Yamna – may have followed the southern stream somehow later compared to western R1b1a1a2a1-L51 lineages, possibly through the settlement of Kovachevo-Troyanovo. The sample at Beli Manastir of the Vučedol culture, of haplogroup R1b1a1a2a2-Z2103[Mathieson et al. 2017] shows how different groups of different lineages might have been involved in the Yamna migration to south-eastern Europe.

The population of Bronze Age tell settlements from the Carpathian Basin show ritual practices in common with the Mycenaean world, with an official cult practiced in specific buildings, like temples destined to serve the entire community, complemented by a family cult, represented by fireplaces and small altar pieces or miniature wagons made of clay.

There were a potential solar cult (reminiscent of the Zeus/Apollo cult) before its appearance later in the Urnfields culture and in the Nordic Bronze Age; human sacrifices potentially addressed to a deity of war (such as Ares); food offerings potentially for some deity of fertility (like the “Great Mother”); animal idols and drinking vessels; a “hero cult” with weapons and other metal objects, etc[Gogaltan 2012]. All of this strengthens the idea of a common Balkan community from which the Proto-Greek population migrated to the south.

R1b1a1a2a2-Z2103 lineages appear in modern populations as a Balkan group – mainly of R1b1a1a2a2c-Z2106 lineages, like the sample found in Stalingrad Quarry dated ca. 2670 –, with a central group dominated by R1b1a1a2a2c1a-Z2110 found in Greece and Central Europe; an Armenian group – of R1b1a1a2a2a-L584 lineages – found mainly in the Armenian highlands; and a northern group – of R1b1a1a2a2b-L277.1 lineage, possibly related to the Vučedol sample ca. 2775 BC and the Bell Beaker sample from Szigetszentmikklós ca. 2330 BC[Olalde et al. 2017].

The modern distribution of R1b1a1a2a2-Z2103 subclades around the Balkans gives therefore support to the existence of a Paleo-Balkan Sprachbund or dialect continuum[Kortlandt 2003].

copper-age-early-balkan.jpg Diachronic map of Copper Age migrations ca. 3100-2600 BC [Anthony 2007][Harrison and Heyd 2007][Sjogren, Price, and Kristiansen 2016][Heyd 2012][Heyd 2014].

r1b-z2105.jpg Modern distribution of haplogroup R1b1a1a2a2-Z2103. Adapted from Myres et al.[Myres et al. 2011].

References

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