R1a-M420 and East Hunter-Gatherers
(Redirected from R1a-M420)
Haplogroup R1a-M420 originated ca. 25000 BC, and has been proposed to diverge initially in the vicinity of present-day Iran based on a study of modern populations[Underhill et al. 2015].
Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) ancestry is represented by two individuals from Karelia, one of haplogroup R1a1a1-M417 (ca. 6425 BC) and the other of haplogroup J (ca. 5250 BC), and one individual from Samara (ca. 5600 BC), of haplogroup R1b1a1a-P297[Mathieson et al. 2017]. It has more ANE ancestry than any other ancient or modern population[Haak et al. 2015], being close to the sample from Afontova Gora (ca. 15980 BC), to the west of Lake Baikal.
The oldest aDNA sample of R1a-M420 lineage found in east Europe was at Vasylivka, dated ca. 8690 BC, at the same site where a sample dated ca. 7250 BC was found of haplogroup R1b1a2-V88[Mathieson et al. 2017]. These and other three Mesolithic samples from Ukraine show an intermediate situation between EHG and Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherer ancestry. Later, during the transition of the Mesolithic to Neolithic, a decrease in ANE ancestry and an increase in WHG ancestry is observed.
We have seen that the Villabruna cluster (and associated Mesolithic R1b-M343 lineages found from western to eastern Europe) might be the representatives of the expansion of West Hunter-Gatherer ancestry, displacing or admixing with the existing population of western Europe. On the other hand, hunter-gatherers from the Iron Gates show WHG (87%) and EHG (13%), and mtDNA haplogroups that contrast with the prevalent haplogroups U5 or U2 of WHG, EHG, and Scandinavian hunter-gatherers[Mathieson et al. 2017].
These lineages may have brought WHG ancestry to the North Pontic steppe during the Mesolithic. Supporting this eastern migration, samples of R1b1a1a-P297 (xR1b1a1a2-M269) have been found in Latvian hunter-gatherers continuously in different periods, dated from the end of the 9th millennium BC to the end of the 4th millennium BC, including Kunda and Narva cultures[Jones et al. 2017][Mathieson et al. 2017].
These Baltic samples show an intermediate ancestry between western and eastern hunter-gatherers, of ca. 70% WHG and 30% EHG, before an increase in EHG is seen during the Neolithic Comb Ware culture expansion (see Forest Zone).
The sample from Afontova Gora 3 (ca. 15980 BC) of the Late Palaeolithic Siberian complex (with cultural and genetic links to the people from Mal’ta Buret’), shows a common cluster in PCA analysis with samples from the eastern steppe of the Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic[Mathieson et al. 2017] .
Haplogroup R1a1a1-M417 (formed ca. 6500 BC, TMRCA ca. 3500 BC) is first found in the Karelian hunter-gatherer dated ca. 6425 BC. Two samples of R1a1a1-M417, dated ca. 5250 BC, have also been found in Early Neolithic Baikalic cultures near the zone where the ancient Mal’ta-Buret’ culture was located. Strontium isotope ratios confirm their local origin, with high paternal heterogeneity, with a trend to replacement by east Eurasian lineages during the Late Neolithic[Moussa et al. 2016].
A migration of R1a-M420 lineages from the Iranian area to the forests of Eastern Europe has been proposed[Horvath 2015].
Therefore, given the Eurasian origin of the eastern European pottery (see below Mesolithic-Neolithic transition) and its westward expansion into Europe, the likely eastern origin of EHG ancestry and R1a1a1-M417 lineages, it seems logical to find a common origin of both populations (from eastern Europe and the Baikal region) in an expansion from Eurasian territory, dated around the subclade’s formation date.
The traditional association of Forest Zone hunter-gatherers’ expansion with hunters of the Kelteminar culture, would imply a date ca. 5500 BC, which is too late for the attested samples. Ancestors of this population are supposed to have originally migrated from the Hissar range ca. 6000 BC, though, with an earlier expansion from a neighbouring area potentially fitting the available data.
Given the early sample of R1a-M420 in the Mesolithic north Pontic area – and maybe the rare subclade R1a5-Z645 found in Estonia[Saag et al. 2017] –, it would also be possible, although unlikely given the available archaeological data, to propose that only pottery was adopted from the east, and that the migration of R1a-M420 subclades (including R1a1a1-M417) happened from the north-west Pontic area, with a back-migration of these lineages to the Baikal region.
Diachronic map of Palaeolithic migrations.
Diachronic map of Mesolithic migrations in Europe ca. 6500-5000 BC [Anthony 2007][Piezonka 2015], Uni-Köln.
Diachronic map of Mesolithic migrations in Asia ca. 6500-5000 BC.
- [Haak et al. 2015] ^ Haak, W., I. Lazaridis, N. Patterson, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, B. Llamas, G. Brandt, S. Nordenfelt, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, Q. Fu, A. Mittnik, E. Banffy, C. Economou, M. Francken, S. Friederich, R. G. Pena, F. Hallgren, V. Khartanovich, A. Khokhlov, M. Kunst, P. Kuznetsov, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, N. Nicklisch, S. L. Pichler, R. Risch, M. A. Rojo Guerra, C. Roth, A. Szecsenyi-Nagy, J. Wahl, M. Meyer, J. Krause, D. Brown, D. Anthony, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, and D. Reich. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522 (7555):207-11.
- [Horvath 2015] ^ Horvath, Csaba Barnabas. 2015. R1a sublcades and Bronze Age migrations on the Eurasian steppes. ESJ 2.
- [Jones et al. 2017] ^ Jones, Eppie R., Gunita Zarina, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Emma Lightfoot, Philip R. Nigst, Andrea Manica, Ron Pinhasi, and Daniel G. Bradley. 2017. The Neolithic Transition in the Baltic Was Not Driven by Admixture with Early European Farmers. Current Biology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.12.060
- [Lazaridis et al. 2016] Lazaridis, I., D. Nadel, G. Rollefson, D. C. Merrett, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, D. Fernandes, M. Novak, B. Gamarra, K. Sirak, S. Connell, K. Stewardson, E. Harney, Q. Fu, G. Gonzalez-Fortes, E. R. Jones, S. A. Roodenberg, G. Lengyel, F. Bocquentin, B. Gasparian, J. M. Monge, M. Gregg, V. Eshed, A. S. Mizrahi, C. Meiklejohn, F. Gerritsen, L. Bejenaru, M. Bluher, A. Campbell, G. Cavalleri, D. Comas, P. Froguel, E. Gilbert, S. M. Kerr, P. Kovacs, J. Krause, D. McGettigan, M. Merrigan, D. A. Merriwether, S. O'Reilly, M. B. Richards, O. Semino, M. Shamoon-Pour, G. Stefanescu, M. Stumvoll, A. Tonjes, A. Torroni, J. F. Wilson, L. Yengo, N. A. Hovhannisyan, N. Patterson, R. Pinhasi, and D. Reich. 2016. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature 536 (7617):419-24. https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19310
- [Mathieson et al. 2017] ^ 1 2 3 4 5 Mathieson, Iain, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Cosimo Posth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Iñigo Olade, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Olivia Cheronet, Daniel Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Beatriz Gamarra, Gloria González Fortes, Wolfgang Haak, Eadaoin Harney, Ben Krause-Kyora, Isil Kucukkalipci, Megan Michel, Alissa Mittnik, Kathrin Nägele, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nick Patterson, Saskia Pfrengle, Kendra Sirak, Kristin Stewardson, Stefania Vai, Stefan Alexandrov, Kurt W. Alt, Radian Andreescu, Dragana Antonović, Abigail Ash, Nadezhda Atanassova, Krum Bacvarov, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Hervé Bocherens, Michael Bolus, Adina Boroneanţ, Yavor Boyadzhiev, Alicja Budnik, Josip Burmaz, Stefan Chohadzhiev, Nicholas J. Conard, Richard Cottiaux, Maja Čuka, Christophe Cupillard, Dorothée G. Drucker, Nedko Elenski, Michael Francken, Borislava Galabova, Georgi Ganetovski, Bernard Gely, Tamás Hajdu, Veneta Handzhyiska, Katerina Harvati, Thomas Higham, Stanislav Iliev, Ivor Janković, Ivor Karavanić, Douglas J. Kennett, Darko Komšo, Alexandra Kozak, Damian Labuda, Martina Lari, Catalin Lazar, Maleen Leppek, Krassimir Leshtakov, Domenico Lo Vetro, Dženi Los, Ivaylo Lozanov, Maria Malina, Fabio Martini, Kath McSweeney, Harald Meller, Marko Menđušić, Pavel Mirea, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Vanya Petrova, T. Douglas Price, Angela Simalcsik, Luca Sineo, Mario Šlaus, Vladimir Slavchev, Petar Stanev, Andrej Starović, Tamás Szeniczey, Sahra Talamo, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Corinne Thevenet, Ivan Valchev, Frédérique Valentin, Sergey Vasilyev, Fanica Veljanovska, Svetlana Venelinova, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, Bence Viola, Cristian Virag, Joško Zaninović, Steve Zäuner, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Giulio Catalano, Raiko Krauß, David Caramelli, Gunita Zariņa, Bisserka Gaydarska, Malcolm Lillie, Alexey G. Nikitin, Inna Potekhina, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Dušan Borić, Clive Bonsall, Johannes Krause, Ron Pinhasi, and David Reich. 2017. The Genomic History Of Southeastern Europe. bioRxiv.
- [Moussa et al. 2016] ^ Moussa, N. M., V. I. Bazaliiskii, O. I. Goriunova, F. Bamforth, and A. W. Weber. 2016. Y-chromosomal DNA analyzed for four prehistoric cemeteries from Cis-Baikal, Siberia. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
- [Saag et al. 2017] ^ Saag, Lehti, Liivi Varul, Christiana Lyn Scheib, Jesper Stenderup, Morten E Allentoft, Lauri Saag, Luca Pagani, Maere Reidla, Kristiina Tambets, Ene Metspalu, Aivar Kriiska, Eske Willerslev, Toomas Kivisild, and Mait Metspalu. 2017. Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the Steppe. bioRxiv.
- [Underhill et al. 2015] ^ Underhill, P. A., G. D. Poznik, S. Rootsi, M. Jarve, A. A. Lin, J. Wang, B. Passarelli, J. Kanbar, N. M. Myres, R. J. King, J. Di Cristofaro, H. Sahakyan, D. M. Behar, A. Kushniarevich, J. Sarac, T. Saric, P. Rudan, A. K. Pathak, G. Chaubey, V. Grugni, O. Semino, L. Yepiskoposyan, A. Bahmanimehr, S. Farjadian, O. Balanovsky, E. K. Khusnutdinova, R. J. Herrera, J. Chiaroni, C. D. Bustamante, S. R. Quake, T. Kivisild, and R. Villems. 2015. The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a. Eur J Hum Genet 23 (1):124-31.
- [Klyosov 2012] Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii 2012. Haplogroup R1a as the Proto Indo-Europeans and the Legendary Aryans as Witnessed by the DNA of Their Current Descendants. Advances in Anthropology 2012. Vol.2, No.1.