Uralic and Yukaghir
The expansion of R1a1a1-M417 lineages bringing EHG ancestry to east Europe from central Eurasia may have disrupted the Early Proto-Indo-European R1b1a1a-P297 community thriving in east Europe.
In this context, R1a1a1-M417 lineages might have spoken Uralo-Yukaghir languages when arriving in the Forest Zone from the east, and Uralic could therefore be considered a superstratum over a Pre-Indo-European substratum. A Uralo-Yukaghir community spread over Eurasia is supported by the east-west direction of cultural innovations in the region, and by the finding of maximum Ancient North Eurasian ancestry in modern-day Kets, Mansi, Native Americans, Nganasans and Yukaghirs[Flegontov et al. 2016].
On the other hand, R1a1a1-M417 lineages may have brought a Yukaghir superstratum to the Indo-Uralic spoken in the Forest Zone (an equivalent to Early Proto-Indo-European in this macro-family proposal) by R1b1a1a-P297 communities similar to the Narva samples, developing a Proto-Uralic-speaking community.
Following the hypothesis of R1b1a2-V88 lineages bringing Afroasiatic to Africa, and macro-family proposals including Nostratic associated with haplogroup R-M207 (see Indo-Uralic and Afroasiatic), it would be possible to propose an association of Eurasian R1a-M420 lineages and EHG with Indo-Uralic, which would have then been adopted by western European R1b1a1a-P297 communities.
- [Flegontov et al. 2016] ^ Flegontov, P., P. Changmai, A. Zidkova, M. D. Logacheva, N. E. Altinisik, O. Flegontova, M. S. Gelfand, E. S. Gerasimov, E. E. Khrameeva, O. P. Konovalova, T. Neretina, Y. V. Nikolsky, G. Starostin, V. V. Stepanova, I. V. Travinsky, M. Triska, P. Triska, and T. V. Tatarinova. 2016. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry. Sci Rep 6:20768.