Uralic and Yukaghir
The expansion of R1a1a1-M417 lineages from central Eurasia must have therefore disrupted the Early Proto-Indo-European R1b1a1a-P297 community thriving in east Europe.
In this context, R1a1a1-M417 – and not R1b1a1a-P297 – lineages might have spoken Indo-Uralic languages when arriving in the Forest Zone from the east.
A Uralo-Yukaghir community spread over Eurasia is supported by the east-west direction of cultural innovations in the region, and by the finding of maximum Ancient North Eurasian ancestry in modern-day Kets, Mansi, Native Americans, Nganasans and Yukaghirs[Flegontov et al. 2016].
On the other hand, R1a1a1-M417 lineages may have brought a Yukaghir superstratum to the Indo-Uralic (an equivalent to Early Proto-Indo-European in this macro-family proposal) spoken in the Forest Zone by R1b1a1a-P297 communities similar to the Narva samples, developing a Proto-Uralic-speaking community in the western steppe.
Also, following the hypothesis of R1b1a2-V88 lineages bringing Afroasiatic to Africa, and macro-family proposals including Nostratic associated with haplogroup R-M207, it would be thus possible to propose an association of Eurasian R1a-M420 lineages and ANE-EHG ancestry with Indo-Uralic, which would have then been adopted by western European communities of R1b1a1a-P297 lineages speaking Afroasiatic languages.
- [Flegontov et al. 2016] ^ Flegontov, P., P. Changmai, A. Zidkova, M. D. Logacheva, N. E. Altinisik, O. Flegontova, M. S. Gelfand, E. S. Gerasimov, E. E. Khrameeva, O. P. Konovalova, T. Neretina, Y. V. Nikolsky, G. Starostin, V. V. Stepanova, I. V. Travinsky, M. Triska, P. Triska, and T. V. Tatarinova. 2016. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry. Sci Rep 6:20768.