- The social sphere
- The round barrow ("tumulus") as a personalised monument, often combined with an anthropomorphic stela reinforcing the personhood of the deceased.
- Single burial with the deceased lying flexed on its back, often covered in red ochre, and in a deep rectangular pit.
- Social position and gender are sistematically marked (less so in Bulgaria), with a wooden wagon marking an elevated social position (at the western edge, there is little grave equipment).
- Craftsmen - especially metalworkers - have a special social status in the north Pontic region.
- Hoarding metal objects begin again, with shaft-hole axes in the western Yamna area.
- The technological sphere
- Re-establishment of metallurgy of gold and copper, following a long decline after 3500 BC. A different 'Caucasian mettalurgy' consisting of smelting, working, and casting in two-piece stone moulds.
- New weapon designs in copper: the shaft-hole axe and tanged metal dagger.
- The economic sphere
- The domesticated horse, important in a dedicated pastoral economy which raises herds of cattle and flocks of sheep for wool.
- Wooden wagons placed in graves as social markers, the westernmost examples are graves of Placidol in northern Bulgaria.
- The material sphere
- The custom of using simple golden, electrum or silver hair rings, a distinctive bone toggle, and decorated bone discs
- Widespread use of cord decoration on pottery; the common cross-footed bowls, copy models on the eastern Pontic steppes.
These components later evolved in western Europe (in the upper Danube), in combination with the 'Proto-Beaker package', into the classical Bell Beaker culture.
- [Harrison and Heyd 2007] ^ Harrison, Richard, and Volker Heyd. 2007. The Transformation of Europe in the Third Millennium BC: the example of ‘Le Petit-Chasseur I + III’ (Sion, Valais, Switzerland). Praehistorische Zeitschrift 82 (2).