Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Guide to the reader



Conventions used in this book

List of Supplementary Figures




I. Palaeolithic

I.1. Modern humans

I.2. Upper Palaeolithic

I.3. Epipalaeolithic

i.3. Nostratians

II. Mesolithic

II.1. North-Eastern Technocomplex

ii.1. Eurasians

II.2. Colonisation of Scandinavia

ii.2. Northern Europeans

II.3. Pontic–Caspian zone

II.3.1. North Pontic steppes

II.3.2. North Pontic forest

II.3.3. North Caspian steppes

II.3.4. Hunter-gatherer pottery

ii.3. Indo-Uralians

II.4. North Africa

ii.4. Early Afrasians

II.5. Caucasus Mesolithic

ii.5. Caucasus hunter-gatherers

II.6. Fertile Crescent

ii.6. Early agriculturalists

III. Neolithic

III.1. Neolithic package

iii.1. Aegean farmers

III.2. European Neolithic

III.2.1. Mediterranean

III.2.2. Central Europe

iii.2. Early European farmers

III.3. Caucasus

III.4. Africa

iii.4. Northern Africans

III.5. Pontic–Caspian steppe

iii.5. Early Indo-Europeans and Uralians

IV. Early Æneolithic

IV.1. Central Europe

IV.1.1. Post-LBK

IV.1.2. Megalithic culture

iv.1. European Neolithic farmers

IV.2. Khvalynsk–Novodanilovka

IV.2.1. Genesis and expansion of Khvalynsk

IV.2.2. Horses

IV.2.3. Kurgans

IV.2.4. Khvalynsk economy

IV.2.5. Suvorovo

IV.2.6. Varna

iv.2. Indo-Anatolians

IV.3. Eastern Europe

IV.3.1. Metalworking

IV.3.2. Early Sredni Stog

IV.3.3. Cucuteni–Trypillia

IV.3.4. Forest Zone

iv.3. Early Uralians

IV.4. Fertile Crescent

IV.4.1. Anatolia and the Levant

IV.4.2. Caucasus and Mesopotamia

iv.4. Late Middle Easterners

IV.5. Africa

iv.5. Late Afrasians

V. Middle and Late Æneolithic

V.1. Africa and the Levant

v.1. Early Semites

V.2. The Caucasus

V.2.1. Chaff tempered ceramics

V.2.2. Maikop

v.2. Early Caucasians

V.3. Anatolia

V.3.1. Arslantepe

v.3. Early Anatolians

V.4. Steppe package

V.4.1. Kurgan cultures

V.4.2. Corded ware

V.5. Northern Europe

V.5.1. Funnel Beaker culture

V.5.2. Lublin–Volhynia

V.5.3. Forest Zone

v.5. Northern Europeans

V.6. North Pontic area

V.6.1. Late Sredni Stog

V.6.2. Zhyvotylivka–Vovchans’k and Gordineşti

V.6.3. Globular Amphorae and Proto-Corded Ware

v.6. Late Uralians

V.7. Don–Volga–Ural region

V.7.1. Late Khvalynsk–early Repin

V.7.2. Late Repin

v.7. Common Indo-Europeans

V.8. Inner Asia

v.8. Palaeosiberians

V.9. Afanasevo

v.9. Pre-Tocharians

VI. Early Chalcolithic

VI.1. Early Yamna culture

VI.1.1. North Pontic region

VI.1.2. East-central European lowlands

VI.1.3. The Yamna package

VI.1.4. Volga–Ural region

vi.1. Disintegrating Indo-Europeans

VI.2. The Transformation of Europe

VI.2.1. Tumuli

VI.2.2. Anthropomorphic stelae

VI.2.3. Associated cultures

vi.2. Late European farmers

VI.3. Classical Corded Ware culture

VI.3.1. Genesis of the Corded Ware culture

VI.3.2. Single Grave

VI.3.3. East-Central Europe and Globular Amphora

VI.3.4. Circum-Baltic Late Neolithic

VI.3.5. Contacts with Yamna

vi.3. Disintegrating Uralians

VI.4. Middle East

VI.4.1. Maikop–Novosvobodnaya

VI.4.2. Kura–Araxes

vi.4. Northern Caucasians

VI.5. Africa and the Levant

vi.5. Semites and Berbers

VII. Late Chalcolithic

VII.1. Eastern Corded Ware expansion

VII.1.1. Central Europe

VII.1.2. Middle Dnieper

VII.1.3. Fatyanovo–Balanovo

VII.1.4. Battle Axe culture

vii.1. Western and Eastern Uralians

VII.2. Pontic–Caspian steppes

VII.2.1. Poltavka

VI.2.2. Catacomb

vii.2. Early Indo-Iranians

VII.3. Southern Caucasus

vii.3. Southern Caucasians

VII.4. Aegean Early Bronze Age

vii.4. Aegeans and Anatolians

VII.5. The Balkans

vii.5. Palaeo-Balkan peoples

VII.6. Iberia

vii.6. Basque-Iberians

VII.7. Bell Beaker culture

VII.7.1. The Bell Beaker package

VII.7.2. East Bell Beaker group

VII.7.3. Contacts Bell Beaker – Corded Ware

vii.7. North-West Indo-Europeans

VIII. Early Bronze Age

VIII.1. The European Early Bronze Age

viii.1. Old Europeans

VIII.2. Southern EEBA province

VIII.2.1. Northern Italy

VIII.2.2. Central Italy

VIII.2.3. Southern Italy

VIII.2.4. Sicily, Malta and the Aeolian islands

viii.2. Italic peoples and Etruscans

VIII.3. Mediterranean EEBA Province

VIII.3.1. El Argar

VIII.3.2. North-West Mediterranean

VIII.3.3. Balearic Islands

VIII.3.4. Sardinia and Corsica

viii.3. Ligurians and Iberians

VIII.4. Iberian EEBA province

VIII.4.1. Old and New Bell Beakers

VIII.4.2. Meseta

VIII.4.3. Western Iberia

VIII.4.4. North Iberia

viii.4. Lusitanians and Tartessians

VIII.5. Western EEBA province

VIII.5.1. Channel – North Sea

VIII.5.2. British Isles

VIII.5.3. Western and central Alps

viii.5. Pre-Celts and Basques

VIII.6. Central EEBA province

VIII.6.1. Danubian Early Bronze Age

VIII.6.2. Únětice period (EBA)

VIII.6.3. Tumulus period (MBA)

VIII.6.4. Urnfield

VIII.6.5. Hallstatt – La Tène

viii.6. Celts

VIII.7. Northern EEBA province

VIII.7.1. Rhenish / Dutch groups

VIII.7.2. Nordic Late Neolithic

VIII.7.3. Northern EBA – MBA

VIII.7.4. Nordic LBA

VIII.7.5. Pre-Roman Iron Age

viii.7. Germanic peoples

VIII.8. Eastern EEBA province

VIII.8.1. Mierzanowice–Nitra

VIII.8.2. North-Eastern province – Iwno

VIII.8.3. Trzciniec

VIII.8.4. Lusatian culture

VIII.8.5. Pomeranian and West Baltic Kurgans culture

viii.8. Balto-Slavs

VIII.9. Adriatic province

VIII.9.1. Cetina

VIII.9.2. Castellieri

VIII.9.3. Vatina

VIII.9.4. Glasinac and Paraćin

viii.9. Messapians and Illyrians

VIII.10. Carpathian province

viii.10. Carpathian Bell Beakers

VIII.11. Balkan province

VIII.11.1. Balkans EBA

VIII.11.2. Balkans MBA

VIII.11.3. Balkans LBA

VIII.11.4. Balkans EIA

viii.11. Thracians and Albanians

VIII.12. The Aegean

VIII.12.1. Middle Helladic and Minoan

VIII.12.2. Mycenaean Civilisation

viii.12. Greeks and Philistines

VIII.13. Anatolia

VIII.13.1. The Kārum period

VIII.13.2. The Hittite period

viii.13. Assyrians and Hittites

VIII.14. The Caucasus

viii.14. Caucasians and Armenians

VIII.15. Eastern European Forest Zone

VIII.15.1. Balanovo

VIII.15.2. Netted Ware, Chirkovo, Kazan

VIII.15.3. Ananyino and Akozino

viii.15. Mordvins and Mari-Permians

VIII.16. Fennoscandia

VIII.16.1. Kiukainen

VIII.16.2. Asbestos Ware cultures

VIII.16.3. Textile ceramics

VIII.16.4. Morby/Ilmandu

viii.16. Saami and Baltic Finns

VIII.17. Eurasian forest-steppes

VIII.17.1. Abashevo

VIII.17.2. The Seima–Turbino phenomenon

VIII.17.3. Andronovo-like cultural horizon

VIII.17.4. Mezhovska–Irmen cultural horizon

VIII.17.5. Itkul’–Gamayun and Sargat

viii.17. Ugrians and Samoyeds

VIII.18. Eurasian steppes

VIII.18.1. Sintashta–Potapovka–Filatovka

VIII.18.2. Andronovo

VIII.18.3. Chemurchek

viii.18.1. Late Indo-Iranians

viii.18.2. Tocharians

VIII.19. Pontic–Caspian steppes

VIII.19.1. Multi-Cordoned Ware

VIII.19.2. Srubna and Sabatinovka

VIII.19.3. Simple-Relief-Band Ware

VIII.19.4. Scythians and Sarmatians

viii.19. Iranians

VIII.20. Turan and South Asia

viii.20. Dravidians and Indo-Aryans

VIII.21. Siberia

VIII.21.1. West Siberia

viii.21.1. Yukaghirs

viii.21.2. Turkic peoples and Mongols