Maps

A list of available maps can be found at <https://indo-european.eu/maps/>.

Suppl. Fig. 1. Map of out-of-Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans (before ca. 35000 BC) with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/out-of-africa/>.

Suppl. Fig. 2. Map of Upper Palaeolithic cultures (ca. 35000–20000 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/palaeolithic/>.

Suppl. Fig. 3. Map of Epipalaeolithic cultures (ca. 20000-10000 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/epipalaeolithic/>.

Suppl. Fig. 4. Map of Early Mesolithic cultures (ca. 10000–7500 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/mesolithic-early/>.

Suppl. Fig. 5. Map of Late Mesolithic cultures (ca. 7500–6000 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/mesolithic/>.

Suppl. Fig. 6. Map of Neolithic and hunter-gatherer pottery expansion (ca. 6000–5000 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/neolithic/>.

Suppl. Fig. 7. Map of Early Eneolithic cultures (ca. 5000–4000 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/eneolithic-early/>.

Suppl. Fig. 8. Map of Late Eneolithic cultures (ca. 4000–3300 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups.  <https://indo-european.eu/maps/eneolithic/>.

Suppl. Fig. 9. Map of Final Eneolithic / Chalcolithic expansions (ca. 3300–2600 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/copper-age/>.

Suppl. Fig. 10. Yamna – Bell Beaker evolution <https://indo-european.eu/maps/yamna-bell-beaker/>.

10.A) Map of attested Yamnaya pit-grave burials in the Hungarian plains; superimposed in shades of blue are common areas covered by floods before the extensive controls imposed in the 19th century; in orange, cumulative thickness of sand, unfavourable loamy sand layer. Marked are settlements/findings of Boleráz (ca. 3500 BC on), Baden (until ca. 2800 BC), Kostolac (precise dates unknown), and Yamna kurgans (from ca. 3100/3000 BC on).

10. B) Map of Yamna – Bell Beaker migrations in Central Europe (ca. 2800–2300 BC).

10.C) Tentative map of fine-scale population structure during steppe-related expansions (ca. 3500–2000 BC), including Repin–Yamna–Bell Beaker/Balkans and Sredni Stog–Corded Ware groups. Data based on published samples and pairwise comparisons tested to date. Notice that the potential admixture of expanding Repin/Early Yamna settlers in the North Pontic area with the late Sredni Stog population (and thus Sredni Stog-related ancestry in Yamna) has been omitted for simplicity purposes, assuming thus a homogeneous Yamna vs. Corded Ware ancestry.

Suppl. Fig. 11. Map of Chalcolithic expansions (ca. 2600–2200 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/chalcolithic/>.

Suppl. Fig. 12. Map of Early Bronze Age cultures (ca. 2200–1750 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/early-bronze-age/>.

Suppl. Fig. 13. Map of Middle Bronze Age cultures (ca. 1750–1250 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/middle-bronze-age/>.

Suppl. Fig. 14. Map of Late Bronze Age cultures (ca. 1250–750 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/late-bronze-age/>.

Suppl. Fig. 15. Map of Early Iron Age cultures (ca. 750–250 BC), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/iron-age/>.

Suppl. Fig. 16. Map of Late Iron Age cultures (ca. 250 BC – AD 250), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/classical-antiquity/>.

Suppl. Fig. 17. Map of peoples and cultures in Antiquity (ca. AD 250–750), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/antiquity/>.

Suppl. Fig. 18. Map of peoples and languages in the Middle Ages (ca. AD 750–1400), with Y-DNA haplogroups, ADMIXTURE, and mtDNA haplogroups. <https://indo-european.eu/maps/medieval/>.

Suppl. Fig. 19. Map of Eurasian biomes, modified from Wikipedia.