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Juras, Anna, Maciej Chyleński, Edvard Ehler, Helena Malmström, Danuta Żurkiewicz, Piotr Włodarczak, Stanisław Wilk, Jaroslav Peška, Pavel Fojtík, Miroslav Králík, Jerzy Libera, Jolanta Bagińska, Krzysztof Tunia, Viktor I. Klochko, Miroslawa Dabert, Mattias Jakobsson, and Aleksander Kośko. 2018. Mitochondrial genomes reveal an east to west cline of steppe ancestry in Corded Ware populations. Scientific Reports 8 (1):11603.

Kador, Thomas, Lara M. Cassidy, Jonny Geber, Robert Hensey, Pádraig Meehan, and Sam Moore. 2018. Rites of Passage: Mortuary Practice, Population Dynamics, and Chronology at the Carrowkeel Passage Tomb Complex, Co. Sligo, Ireland. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society:1-31.

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Kaiser, Elke, and Katja Winger. 2015. Pit graves in Bulgaria and the Yamnaya Culture. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 90 (1-2).

Kajtoch, Łukasz, Elżbieta Cieślak, Zoltán Varga, Wojciech Paul, Miłosz A. Mazur, Gábor Sramkó, and Daniel Kubisz. 2016. Phylogeographic patterns of steppe species in Eastern Central Europe: a review and the implications for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 25 (12):2309-2339.

Kallio, Petri. 2001. Phonetic Uralisms in Indo-European? In Early Contacts between Uralic and Indo-European: Linguistic and Archaeological Considerations, edited by C. Carpelan, A. Parpola and P. Koskikallio. Helsinki: Société Finno-Ougrienne.

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Repeated Author. 2009. Stratigraphy of Indo-European loanwords in Saami. In Máttut - máddagat: The Roots of Saami Ethnicities, Societies and Spaces / Places, edited by T. Äikäs. Oulu: Publications of the Giellagas Institute 12.

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Repeated Author. 2015. The Stratigraphy of the Germanic Loanwords in Finnic. In Early Germanic Languages in Contact, edited by J. O. Askedal and H. F. Nielsen. Amsterdam - Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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Kaňáková, Ludmila, Jozef Bátora, and Vojtěch Nosek. 2019. Use-wear and ballistic analyses of arrowheads from the burial ground of the Nitra culture in Ludanice - Mýtna Nová Ves. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 23:25-35.

Karafet, Tatiana M., Ludmila P. Osipova, Olga V. Savina, Brian Hallmark, and Michael F. Hammer. 2018. Siberian genetic diversity reveals complex origins of the Samoyedic-speaking populations. American Journal of Human Biology 0 (0):e23194.

Karim, Alizadeh, Maziar Sepideh, and M. Rouhollah Mohammadi. 2018. The End of the Kura-Araxes Culture as Seen from Nadir Tepesi in Iranian Azerbaijan. American Journal of Archaeology 122 (3):463-477.

Kashuba, Natalija, Emrah Kirdök, Hege Damlien, Mikael A. Manninen, Bengt Nordqvist, Per Persson, and Anders Götherström. 2018. Ancient DNA from chewing gums connects material culture and genetics of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Scandinavia. bioRxiv:485045.

Kealhofer, Lisa, Peter Grave, and Mary M. Voigt. 2019. Dating Gordion: the timing and tempo of Late Bronze and Early Iron Age political transformation. Radiocarbon:1-20.

Kefi, Rym, Meriem Hechmi, Chokri Naouali, Haifa Jmel, Sana Hsouna, Eric Bouzaid, Sonia Abdelhak, Eliane Beraud-Colomb, and Alain Stevanovitch. 2018. On the origin of Iberomaurusians: new data based on ancient mitochondrial DNA and phylogenetic analysis of Afalou and Taforalt populations. Mitochondrial DNA Part A 29 (1):147-157.

Kelder, Jorrit M. 2010. The Kingdom of Mycenae: A Great Kingdomin the Late Bronze Age Aegean. Bethesda, Maryland: CDL Press.

Keyser, C., C. Bouakaze, E. Crubézy, V. G. Nikolaev, D. Montagnon, and T. Reis. 2009. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people. Hum Genet 126.

Khokhlov, Aleksander. 2018. Предварительные результаты антрополого-генетических исследований материалов Волго-Уралья периода неолита-ранней бронзы международной группой ученых. Paper read at XIV Conference on Samaran Archaeology, 27-28th January, at Samara.

Khokhlov, Aleksandr A. 2016. Demographic and Cranial Characteristics of the Volga-Ural Population in the Eneolithic and Bronze Age. In A Bronze Age Landscape in the Russian Steppes. The Samara Valley Project, edited by D. W. Anthony, D. R. Brown, O. D. Mochalov, A. A. Khokhlov and P. F. Kuznetsov. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.

Khokhlova, Olga, Nina Morgunova, Alexander Khokhlov, and Alexandra Golyeva. 2018. Dynamics of paleoenvironments in the Cis-Ural steppes during the mid- to late Holocene. Quaternary Research:1-15.

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Kılınç, Gülşah Merve, Natalija Kashuba, Reyhan Yaka, Arev Pelin Sümer, Eren Yüncü, Dmitrij Shergin, Grigorij Leonidovich Ivanov, Dmitrii Kichigin, Kjunnej Pestereva, Denis Volkov, Pavel Mandryka, Artur Kharinskii, Alexey Tishkin, Evgenij Ineshin, Evgeniy Kovychev, Aleksandr Stepanov, Aanatolij Alekseev, Svetlana Aleksandrovna Fedoseeva, Mehmet Somel, Mattias Jakobsson, Maja Krzewińska, Jan Storå, and Anders Götherström. 2018. Investigating Holocene human population history in North Asia using ancient mitogenomes. Scientific Reports 8 (1):8969.

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Kim, Kijeong, Charles H. Brenner, Victor H. Mair, Kwang-Ho Lee, Jae-Hyun Kim, Eregzen Gelegdorj, Natsag Batbold, Yi-Chung Song, Hyeung-Won Yun, Eun-Jeong Chang, Gavaachimed Lkhagvasuren, Munkhtsetseg Bazarragchaa, Ae-Ja Park, Inja Lim, Yun-Pyo Hong, Wonyong Kim, Sang-In Chung, Dae-Jin Kim, Yoon-Hee Chung, Sung-Su Kim, Won-Bok Lee, and Kyung-Yong Kim. 2010. A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142 (3):429-440.

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Knipper, Corina, Alissa Mittnik, Ken Massy, Catharina Kociumaka, Isil Kucukkalipci, Michael Maus, Fabian Wittenborn, Stephanie E. Metz, Anja Staskiewicz, Johannes Krause, and Philipp W. Stockhammer. 2017. Female exogamy and gene pool diversification at the transition from the Final Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in central Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Krause-Kyora, Ben, Julian Susat, Felix M. Key, Denise Kühnert, Esther Bosse, Alexander Immel, Christoph Rinne, Sabin-Christin Kornell, Diego Yepes, Sören Franzenburg, Henrike O. Heyne, Thomas Meier, Sandra Lösch, Harald Meller, Susanne Friederich, Nicole Nicklisch, Kurt W. Alt, Stefan Schreiber, Andreas Tholey, Alexander Herbig, Almut Nebel, and Johannes Krause. 2018. Neolithic and medieval virus genomes reveal complex evolution of hepatitis B. eLife 7:e36666.

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[1] Kallio (2015): “Rather than the standard comparative method the most popular tool has recently been the probabilistic approach (…). To put it crudely, all this means that instead of comparing two reconstructed protolanguages one only compares two 50-item or 100-item wordlists. Call me a grumpy old man, but I fail to see how such laziness would be progress, although it is of course faster and easier, requiring hardly any knowledge of the languages themselves. It is therefore no wonder that limited wordlists are particularly popular among nonlinguists applying phylogenetic methods to languages (see now Pereltsvaig & Lewis 2015 for an excellent review).”

[2] Dates were retrieved from the website <https://www.yfull.com/> during October-December 2018.

[3] For details on the specific methodology used, see <https://www.yfull.com/faq/what-yfulls-age-estimation-methodology/>.

[4] Tentative SNP call within the O-M175 tree, obtained with Yleaf, from Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials.

[5] Additional information: Q1a originally reported by YFull; tentative SNP call R1 obtained with Yleaf, from Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials.

[6] Tentative SNP call obtained with Yleaf, from Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials. More tentative subclade obtained is basal R1b1a1a-M73*.

[7] The finding of two isolated R1a1a-M198 samples in Lokomotiv (Mooder et al. 2005) associated with Kitoi material culture (dated ca. 6000-5200 BC), among sixteen reported haplogroups, with the rest being K-M9 (likely N-M231) and one C2-M21,  in the western shores of Lake Baikal (Moussa et al. 2016), may suggest an expansion of these lineages from the Trans-Urals region. However:

a) the earliest reported R1a1-M459 lineages are all from eastern Europe (Mathieson et al. 2018);

b) there are no calibrated dates for those samples, paternal lineages for Kitoi seem too heterogeneous, and there are known later eastward expansions of hg. R1a1a1b-Z645 to the region (see §viii.20.3. Turkic peoples and Mongols);

c) recently reported samples from the region during the Early Neolithic have not obtained any R1a-M420 subclade, but are consistent with the presence of N-M231 and C2-M217 (de Barros Damgaard, Martiniano, et al. 2018);

d) the obtained strontium isotope ratios that serve to confirm their local origin (Moussa et al. 2016) cannot differentiate between earlier and later periods; and

e) based on the study of modern populations, basal R1a-M420* and R1a1-M459* subclades have only found around the Caucasus, not among Asian or Siberian populations (Underhill et al. 2015; Karafet et al. 2018).

The most likely interpretation for both samples, until confirmed in different ones with proper radiocarbon dates, is that they belong to later archaeological layers, or to contamination.

[8] A source akin to Iberia Early Neolithic populations may have influenced some of the scarce ancient samples investigated from south and south-east Africa, although without a proper geographic and temporal sampling it is impossible to determine how this West Eurasian gene flow happened. Additional analyses by Chad Rohlfsen (2019).

[9] Additional information by Robert Smith.

[10] Additional information by Alberto González.

[11] Additional information by Alberto González (2019).

[12] Additional information by Alberto González (2019) and David Wesolowski (2019).

[13] Additional analyses by Chad Rohlfsen (2019).

[14] Homer. The Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Retrieved (2018) from <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/>.

[15] Recently classified as of hg. R1b1a2-V1636 by Sergey Malyshev. Its SNP calls have been also reported previously as corresponding to pre-R1b1b-V88 by Robert Smith; and to R1b1a1a1-M478 (formed ca. 11300 BC, TMRCA ca. 5300 BC), a subclade of R1b1a1a-M73. Nevertheless, tentative analysis with Yleaf does not yield a subclade beyond R1b1-L754 in Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials. With such conflicting reports, it is probably safe to assume, as did the authors of the paper that published the sample (given the relevance of its assemblage, and the likely influence of his family in the Khvalynsk expansion) that it may have belonged to haplogroup R1b1a1b-M269.

[16] Additional information by Sergey Malyshev.

[17] Both populations can be modelled as of EHG (ca. 40–60%) and the remainder from a CHG-related basal ancestry, with Vonyuchka slightly shifted to Iran Neolithic, whereas Maykop receives CHG-related ancestry (ca. 86%) apart from Anatolian Neolithic (ca. 10%) and EHG (ca. 4%), according to Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials.

[18] Additional information by David Wesolowski (2018).

[19] Additional information by Chris Rottenstein.

[20] Additional information by Robert Smith.

[21] Additional information on Maikop outliers by Sergey Malyshev.

[22] The ancestry of the Oleksandriia individual can be modelled best as a mixture of Progress Eneolithic (ca. 20–40%) with local populations, which may include a combination of Varna-, Ukraine Neolithic-, or Comb Ware-related samples, as reported by David Wesolowski and other amateurs (2019). The lack of Samara/Khvalynsk-related ancestry supports the origin of his ancestry as an admixture of locals from the North Pontic forest-steppe region with Suvorovo–Novodanilovka-like populations of Steppe ancestry.

[23] Informally reported by amateurs as possibly within the R1a1a1b2a1a-Z93 tree (Y26+, L2-). However, the date seems too early for this subclade, given the estimated formation date (ca. 3500– 2500 BC). Tentative SNP calls with Yleaf from Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials also yield hg. R1a1a1-M417, without further subclade.

[24] Eleven out of twelve unpublished samples from the project Blood ties in Koszice burial site, of the Centre of Geogenetics. Additional information by Richard Rocca. One sample reported as of hg. I2a2-L59.

[25] Reported as I2a2a. Additional information by Vladimir Tagankin.

[26] Additional information from Robert Smith. Tentative SNP call with the lowest possible branch of the tree obtained with Yleaf is R1b1a1b-M269, from Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials, which support that the sample is not within the R1b1a1b1b-Z2103 tree.

[27] The apparent similarity of Afanasevo samples with Yamna individuals from the Kalmykia region between the Don and Volga rivers (among investigated Yamna samples), as well as the similarity in best fits obtained comparable to Yamna from Ukraine or the Caucasus, points to the expansion of Pre-Afanasevo peoples from the Don–Volga area rather than from the Volga–Ural region, suggesting therefore that they were indeed an early offshoot of late Repin.

[28] Package refers to the idea “that a recurring assemblage of well-defined artefacts and customs, visible in the archaeological record, matches an equivalent cluster of social habits, which identify a tightly-knit group. The term ‘package’ clarifies the idea that it is an arbitrary social choice to create insignia, and that their function is to make and maintain cultural boundaries with others who live in the same area. For this purpose, special clothes and dresses, or drinking and eating habits, are important. A cultural ‘package’ of this kind is an ideological statement, materialised in a special manner, so its transmission and adoption can be very rapid indeed.” (Harrison and Heyd 2007)

[29] In terms of specific groups, Yamna individuals may be modelled as from samples from the Northern Caucasus Piedmont and the Volga–Ural area, with the best current fits being Progress Eneolithic (ca. 40–50%) and Khvalynsk–Samara (ca. 35–40%), as well as variable contributions of ‘western’ populations (ca. 5–15%), with the best proxies for them being GAC, Trypillia, Ukraine Neolithic (or Mesolithic), or Varna samples. These ‘western’ proxies coincide with those of the late Sredni Stog population of the north Pontic area (being themselves also a good fit for Yamna groups), who do not derive sizeable ancestry from Khvalynsk (see above §v.6. Late Uralians), and which are also found elevated in Corded Ware and derived groups (see below §vi.3. Disintegrating Uralians). Multiple additional analyses with different proxy populations tested online by David Wesolowski and other amateurs (2018–2019).

[30] Further SNPs reported by Robert Smith.

[31] Published as corresponding to Nordic Middle Neolithic culture, additional information by Vladimir Tagankin revealed a branch typical of modern Nordic (R1a1a1b1a3-Z284) subclades, and a new date of ca. 2475 BC, including reduction for high marine signal.

[32] Additional information by Sergey Malyshev.

[33] Additional information by Robert Smith, confirmed by Iosif Lazaridis (2016).

[34] Tentative SNP call J obtained with Yleaf, from Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials.

[35] Additional information by Sergey Malyshev.

[36] Additional information by Robert Smith, confirmed by Iosif Lazaridis (2016).

[37] Estimate by Volker Heyd (2018) based on the number of barrows found to date.

[38] Informal report of the Ph.D. Thesis does not include the specific locations. Samples investigated come from northern France, Alsace, and the Mediterranean region, with Alsace having the earliest investigated Bell Beaker burials to date in France.

[39] Additional information by David Wesolowski (2019).

[40] ZZ11+ equivalent (ancestral to DF27 and U152); DF27+? In 390k BAM file, but short, may actually belong to chromosomes 2 or 5. Additional information from Alex Williamson.

[41] Further information on SNPs by Richard Rocca and Alex Williamson.

[42] Report from oral communication A 12,000-year Genetic History of Rome and the Italian Peninsula, by Hannah Moots, the 6th February 2019, at the Archaeology Center of Stanford University, about an unpublished study of 134 ancient samples from Lazio and surrounding areas spanning 12,000 years from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Renaissance.

[43] Reported by Richard Rocca (2018).

[44] It was criticised extensively in a special section of Vol. 42 of The Journal of Indo-European Studies (No. 3 & 4, Fall/Winter 2014)

[45] Remark made by Iosif Lazaridis on Twitter (2018).

[46] The Amesbury archer’s reported hg. R1b1a1b1a1a-L151 may also be R1b1a1b1a1a2c-S461, an SNP call tentatively obtained with Yleaf from the petrous sample, from Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials.

[47] Originally reported as R1b1a1b-M269, also assigned to this haplogroup with Yleaf in (Wang et al. 2019) supplementary materials. Further subclade R1b1a1a2a1a1c2b2-Z9 reported by Richard Rocca. Nevertheless, Alex Williamson reports this SNP call as potentially the result of deamination, and bad coverage cannot help distinguish even within the R1b1a1b1a1a2-P312 or R1b1a1b1a1a1-U106 trees.

[48] Haplogroup R reported respectively as Ri and Ri?

[49] Further subclade reported by Richard Rocca.

[50] Reported by David Wesolowski (2018).

[51] Further subclade reported by Vladimir Tagankin.

[52] Further subclade reported by Robert Smith.

[53] Haplogroups reported by Alex Williamson.

[54] Further subclade reported by Vladimir Tagankin.

[55] Further subclade reported by Robert Smith.

[56] Data based on reported subclades from the FTDNA group Albanian Bloodlines.

[57] Tentative SNP call J obtained with Yleaf, from Wang et al. (2019) supplementary materials.

[58] Reported by David Wesolowski (2018).

[59] Additional information by Sergey Malyshev.

[60] Reported by David Wesolowski (2016).

[61] Additional information by Robert Smith.

[62] Supplementary Table 4 from Sikora et al. (2018).

[63] Additional information by David Wesolowski (2018).

[64] Additional information by David Wesolowski (2018).

[65] Additional information reported by Open Genomes.

[66] Additional information by David Wesolowski (2018).

[67] Additional information by M. Myllylä (2018).

[68] Preliminary results from the National Board of Antiquities and an archaeological team from the York University shared online, and information appeared on online news.

[69] Additional information by Vladimir Tagankin.

[70] Additional information by Vladimir Tagankin.

[71] Additional information on north Pontic Scythians by Vladimir Tagankin.

[72] Additional information on late Sarmatians by Vladimir Tagankin.

[73] Additional information by Open Genomes.

[74] Additional information by Chad Rohlfsen (2019).

[75] Additional information by Vladimir Tagankin.

[76] Study with old techniques looking for TAT mutation. Needs confirmation, although the proportion found (50%) is compatible with early medieval Ugric peoples.

[77] Additional data on subclades taken from the Hungarian-Magyar Y-DNA project of FTDNA

[78] Additional information by Vladimir Tagankin.

[79] Additional information by Open Genomes.

[80] Additional information by Open Genomes.

[81] Additional information by Open Genomes.

[82] Additional information by Open Genomes.

[83] Upcoming communication by Ning et al. at Eurasia3Angle conference (2019).