4.17. Central Uralic

Phonetic changes of Finno-Permic to Permic include (Sammallahti 1988):

·       Complex vowel evolution, deriving:

o   At a Pre-Permic stage:

§  PFP *u, *ü, * ū, *e → Pre-Permic *ɨ̆.

§  PFP *o(-a), *e̋ → Pre-Permic *ŭ.

§  PFP *i, *ī → Pre-Permic *ĭ.

§  PFP *a → Pre-Permic *u.

§  PFP *o(-i), *ō → Pre-Permic *u̇.

§  PFP *e(-i) → Pre-Permic *ü.

§  PFP *i(-a) → Pre-Permic *i.

§  PFP *e(-ä) → Pre-Permic *o.

§  PFP *i(-ä) → Pre-Permic *e.

§  PFP *ä → Pre-Permic *a.

o   At a Proto-Permic stage:

§  A reduced *ü and  low round *å are added to the paradigm

§  *a split into *ĭ, *ȯ, and *a, so that *ĭ occured in monosyllabic nouns, *a in (new or PFP) monosyllabic vocalic stems, *ȯ elsewhere.

§  Subsequently the non-back, non-front vowels split into back non-round and non-back round vowels: *ȯ → *e̋, *ȯ;  *u̇ → *ɨ, *u̇.

·       Minor changes in the consonant system, including:

·       Retention of original qualities in internal positions, except a few irregular cases (cf. *bur ‘good’ < PFP *pe̋ra).

o   Word internally:

§  Single intervocalic plosives disappeared; cf. PFP *śata ‘hundred’ → PP *śu.

§  Geminate stops became single; cf. PFP *keččä ‘sphere’ → PP *kič.

§  *č changed into *š which was voiced in voiced contexts.

§  *ś changed to *ć postnasally.

§  Single intervocalic obstruents became voiced; cf. PFP *pečä(-) ‘pine’ → PP *požim, PFP *kasi(u̯) ‘long’ → PP *kuź.

§  The dental spirant *d was lost or exchanged to *l which was nasalized adjacent to *m; *ð changed into *lj; cf. PFP *kuda- ‘weave’ → PP *kɨ̆-; PFP *vuði- ‘new’ → PP *vɨ̆lj;

§  Intervocalic *v and *x were lost or changed into *i̯; cf. PFP *kivi ‘stone’PP *kĭ.

§  Intervocalic *ŋ was lost or retained as a nasal; cf. PFP *i̯äŋi ‘ice’PP *i̯.

§  Clusters consisting of a nasal and a plosive or an affricate were denasalised into single voiced stops or affricate; cf. PFP *lenti ‘pasture’ → PP *lud.

§  Nasals were lost before sibilants; cf. PFP *vanša ‘old’ > PP *våž.