4.2. Macedonian

Known features of Macedonian point to an ancestral origin close to Proto-Greek (Brixhe 2018):

·       Previously, it was though that the presence of β instead of φ for initial *bh set it apart from Greek (and parent Graeco-Phrygian, even Graeco-Armenian) evolution. It has recently been proposed, based on the φ found in the Pella tablet, that the evolution in Macedonian likely represents a conditioning voicing of all voiceless obstruents and spirantisation of aspirates, i.e. *ph → *bhv, and spirantisation of voiced stops, *bv. As a consequence of this merge, both share the same graphic realisation.

·       The Koine of Macedonia is similar to that seen in areas where the Koine has replaced a Doric dialect: <A> instead of the expected <H> in anthroponyms, orthographic representation <OY> for inherited *ū.

·       The overwhelming majority of anthroponyms and most toponyms, divine epithets, and names of months can be interpreted through Greek.

·       Some dialectal features appear to be in common with Thessalian and North-West Greek, such as apocope of ā + ō to ā, treatment of group -sm-, and particle -ka.

Since Phrygian and Thracian are quite close to Greek, and there are heavy borrowings (or shared cognates) of Phrygian and Thracian words in Macedonian, it is impossible to say to which Palaeo-Balkan group Macedonian belonged.