4.8. Venetic

Venetic is sometimes classified as closely related to Proto-Italic in a Proto-Italo-Venetic group (Meiser 2017), although documentation (ca. 6th–1st c. BC) is scarce and poorly attested, due to the limitations in the script used. It has also been classified as an Italic (Prósper 2018) or Celtic dialect (Gvozdanovic 2012). Features include (Wallace 2018):

·       Deaspiration of voiced aspirated stops: *bh → *b, *dh → *d, *gh → *g.

·       Merger of the outcome of word-initial *bh, *dh → *f, as in Proto-Italic, and *gh → *h.

·       In word-initial position, *gw → *.

·       Bilabial nasal *m merged with *n in word-final position.

·       Merge of *k →*kw.

·       Syncretism of ablative/instrumental and dative/locative.

·       Probably o-stem genitive singular in *-i.

·       Ending *-t → *-and → *-ann → *-an.

·       Passive forms in *-r.

Given certain common North-West Indo-European lexica (cf. Ven. teu.ta ‘community, people’, Ven. ho.s.i- <*ghosti-, ‘guest, host’), its common development with Proto-Italic, and pronouns similar to Germanic forms, it is likely a West Indo-European dialect.