Abbreviations

1.: first person

2.: second person

3.: third person

abl.: ablative

acc.: accusative

act.: active

adj.: adjective

adv.: adverb

Alb.: Albanian

Arm.: Armenian

aor.: aorist

aux.: auxiliary

Av.: Avestan

BSl.: Balto-Slavic

CA: Common Anatolian

Cel.: Celtic

cf.: confer ‘compare, contrast’

CIE: Common Indo-European

CS: Central Semitic

Cz.: Czech

dat.: dative

DIE: Disintegrating Indo-European

Du.: Dutch

e.g.: exempli gratia ‘for example’

Eng.: English

EPU: Early Proto-Uralic

esp.: especially

f.: feminine

fem.: feminine

gen.: genitive

Gaul.: Gaulish

Gk.: Greek

Gmc.: Proto-Germanic

Goth.: Gothic

Hitt.: Hittite

Hom.: Homeric

IE: Indo-European

imp.: imperative

imperf.: imperfect

ins.: instrumental

int.: interrogative

Ita.: Italic

Lat.: Latin

Lith.: Lithuanian

Ltv.: Latvian

loc.: locative

LPIE: Late Indo-European

LPU: Late Proto-Uralic

Luv.: Luvian

Lyc.: Lycian

Lus.: Lusitanian

m.: masculine

masc.: masculine

MFTD: Multilingual Folk Tale Database (<https://mftd.org/>)

MHG: Middle High German

mid.: middle-passive voice

Mong: Proto-Mongolic

MPIE: Middle Proto-Indo-European

Myc.: Mycenaean

n.: neuter

neu.: neuter

nom.: nominative

NP: noun phrase

NWIE: North-West Indo-European

O: object

Obj.: object

OAv.: Old Avestan

OCS: Old Church Slavic

 

OE: Old English

OInd.: Old Indian

OIr.: Old Irish

OHG: Old High German

OHitt.: Old Hittite

OLat.: Archaic Latin

OLith.: Old Lithuanin

ON: Old Norse

OPers.: Old Persian

OPru.: Old Prussian

ORuss.: Old Russian

opt.: optative

Osc.: Oscan

OSV: object-subject-verb order

OV: object-verb order

p.: person

perf.: perfect

PA: Proto-Anatolian

PAA: Proto-Afrasian

PEB: Proto-East Baltic

PF: Proto-Fennic

PFP: Proto-Finno-Permic

PFS: Proto-Finno-Samic

PFU: Proto-Finno-Ugric

PIAr.: Proto-Indo-Aryan

PII: Proto-Indo-Iranian

PIr.: Proto-Iranian

PGk.: Proto-Greek

Phryg.: Phrygian

PIE: Proto-Indo-European

PIA: Proto-Indo-Anatolian

PIU: Proto-Indo-Uralic

pl.: plural

Pre-BSl.: Pre-Proto-Balto-Slavic

Pre-Ita.: Pre-Proto-Italic 

Pre-Gmc.: Pre-Proto-Germanic

Pre-PII.: Pre-Proto-Indo-Iranian

pres.: present

pron.: pronoun

PS: Proto-Samic

PSem.: Proto-Semitic

PSmy.: Proto-Samoyedic

Ptc.: particle

PT: Proto-Tocharian

PU: Proto-Uralic

PUg.: Proto-Ugric

PWB: Proto-West Baltic

PYuk.: Proto-Yukaghir

Russ.: Russian

sg.: singular

Skt.: Sanskrit

Sla: Proto-Slavic

SOV: subject-object-verb order

subj.: subjunctive

SVO: subject-verb-object order

Toch.: Tocharian

Tung.: Proto-Tungusic

Turk.: Proto-Turkic

Umb.: Umbrian

Ved.: Vedic

Ven.: Venetic

v.i.: vide infra ‘see below’

VO: verb-object order

voc.: vocative

VP: verb phrase

v.s.: vide supra ‘see above’

VSO: verb-subject-object order

WIE: West Indo-European

WS: West Semitic