I.7. Basque

For a Pre-Basque situation, the following features are assumed (Martínez-Areta 2013):

·       SVO order, which means a stage before ergativity.

·       Noun system:

o   Plural marker *-aga.

o   Genitive in *-(e)n.

o   Dative (assumed as general oblique) in *-i.

o   Locative in *-ga.

·       Verbal system:

o   Finite forms unmarked.

o   Non-finite forms marked with *e-.

o   Perfective participle in *-i.

o   Relative clauses in -n attached to finite verb.

Vocabulary used is mainly from Trask (2008).

 

ardi zaldi-aga

ardi ez edun ilei

ekus zaldi-agai

hau ebil gurdi astun,

hau ekarr handi zati,

hau ekarr gizon laster.

ardi enau zaldi-agai:

“nien bihotz-min

ekusen gizoni ehots zaldi-agai.”

zaldi-aga enau: “berarr ardi!

guen bihotz-min ekusen,

gizon, andots, ardi-agan ilega

ber-egin belo antzi,

zaldi-aga ez edu ilei.”

ardi eberarri honi eutz larrei.