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[i] Based also on data from Starostin’s online dictionaries at <http://starling.rinet.ru>.

[ii] A division is made here between traits considered old (hence Early Proto-Uralic) and those considered innovations within the parent language (hence Late Proto-Uralic). Given the phonetic conservatism of the reconstructions ranging from Proto-Uralic to Proto-Finno-Samic, it is reasonable to think that there were probably other phonetic – as well as morphological and syntactic – changes that have not been properly investigated. For example, it is likely that the consonant system, including laryngeal evolution, was more complex and stepped from Indo-Uralic than the static Proto-Uralic reconstructible through comparative grammar.

[iii] Kortlandt considers Greek éednon ‘dowry’ more likely to come from *hed-no-m, in common with Sla. *věno.

[iv] The traditional division into a ‘Centum’ and a ‘Satem’ dialects should be rejected, because satemization trends are late and affected each individual dialect differently, apart from the methodological pitfalls involved in the reconstruction of three series of velars for the parent language (see below for information on the three-dorsal theory).

[v] While Kallio has criticised in more than one occasion the proposal of hypothetic PIE cognates without a direct attestation of the source word (i.e. based on indirect evidence) to support potential loanwords in Uralic languages, this example proves that such a proposal in this case would have been a priori more reasonable than the proposed late borrowing – especially because the reconstruction of initial laryngeals for any Germanic or Pre-Germanic stage is not warranted.

[vi] This loan, found in Finnic languages, is maybe even more likely to belong to a much later stage (maybe metathesised *ehpo < Pre-Gmc. *ehwo-?), but it could belong to a Proto-Uralic stage coinciding with the first PIE expansions associated with the horse, and later replaced in most languages, e.g. in Proto-Ugric by root *luu̯-/*luɣ-. Similarly, North Caucasian *ɦɨ[n]ču̯ĭ may have been adopted at the same time, but the ‘satemization’ points possibly to Proto-Indo-Iranian influence (Dolgopolsky 1987).

[vii] Less likely is the adoption of *hōku- in a similar period, cf. Fin. hoppu, Kar. hoppu ‘hurry’, and perhaps Ludian hopp ‘quarrel’, all probably from a source akin to Swedish hoppa, ‘jump’. If it was in fact borrowed from LPIE, this would support not only the likely condition of *heku̯o- as epithet, ‘the swift one’, probably substituting the previous name for the domestic animal, but also that the relationship between both words was still obvious in the Late Proto-Indo-European period.

[viii] Another language, Tocharian C, probably existed in the Lop Nor Basin, more closely related to Tocharian B than Tocharian A, which would support a continuum of Tocharian dialects along the north side of the Tarim River which developed into two standard, written languages, one around Kucha, the other around Loulan/Kroraina. Tocharian A would have been closely related, but outside that continuum. Information from an online report by Douglas Q. Adams (2019), on findings in the book by Schmidt (2018).

[ix] For detailed information on North-West Indo-European phonology, morphology, and syntax, you can read specialised works published at <https://academiaprisca.org/>.

[x] In the unlikely case that three series of velars could be reconstructed for Late PIE, the NWIE stage would represent a ‘centum’ dialect (with the merge of ‘palatovelars’ with plain velars), with a later satemization trend in Balto-Slavic different from Indo-Iranian.

[xi] The most widespread view nowadays holds that (eventive) long and short passives can be reconstructed as a function for Late PIE, but that there was no specialised passive morphology in the common stage; so e.g. the passive or ‘medial-intransitive’ found in Greek together with its middle system. Judging by the use of inherited DIE *-r alongside *-i, as well as personal endings and stative periphrastic constructions in North-West Indo-European dialects, it can also be assumed that both options were present in the common language, possibly dating as far back as the Indo-Anatolian stage (Kloekhorst 2012), and that they were simplified in later dialectal stages. The use of impersonal *-r Old Indian, its presence in Tocharian (separated first from the Northern Indo-European group), in Italic and Celtic, and its survival up to Proto-Slavic (see below §4.5.3. Northern European)—a dialect that selected mediopassive endings in *-i—may point to this original NWIE (unstable) system. The New Phrygian inscriptions with middle forms further support this alternation in European dialects: αββερετορ ‘affertur’ < *ad-bheretor and αδδακετορ ‘afficitur’ < *ad-dhaketor.

[xii] Please note: statistics were made before the final version of the manuscript, so it is possible that some more shared stems or roots were added, or some data was corrected or deleted. Because of that, approximate total numbers are given instead of exact ones.

[xiii] As in other tonal languages, stress accent has been placed on heavy syllables during recitation. Just like Mandarin Chinese, PIE must have had both stress and pitch accent. Both were important, since some syllables must have had more prominence than others, and high pitch seems to have been more prominent – vowel length appears in most Anatolian words on PIE stressed syllable (DeLisi 2013). As a rule of thumb – as e.g. in the reconstructed Ancient Greek pronunciation, in Arabic, or in the Sezer stress pattern in Turkish –, syllable weight (the length of the syllable) marks the stress of words in this rendition of the fable. Whenever possible, then, syllables that include a long vowel or a diphthong (CVV) and those with more than one consonant (CVCC) are stressed. If in conflict, those with a combination of both (CVVCC) are probably the stressed ones. Nevertheless, according to Kortlandt: “When comparing PIE with other tonal languages, the best candidate is Japanese, which means that the “stress” falls on the last high syllable of a word form or sequence of connected word forms.”

Voiced consonants at the end of syllable (such as *-d, *-gh-, etc.) are pronounced voiced, because LPIE or NWIE did not have final obstruent devoicing as a rule (Byrd 2010). However, there are certain known cases of regressive assimilation, such as *DT→*TT, hence *tod in the last sentence may be more exactly pronounced as *tot-kekluu̯ṓs.

[xiv] This potential retention of the original situation in Palaeo-Balkan languages would put an isolated Indo-Iranian as an innovative branch within the Graeco-Aryan group. Corbeau (2013) summarises the question: “an important remark is made by Kortlandt (2003:77): “The reconstructed absence of initial *r- from Proto-Indo-European is not based on its absence in Greek or Armenian, (…) but on the absence of unextended PIE roots with an initial *r-, which Lehmann demonstrated a long time ago (1951:17) (...)”. This ‘unextended’ is a term from the root structure theory as described by Benveniste in his Origines de la formation des noms en indo-européen (1935). In this book, PIE roots are presented as having a basal structure of two consonants, frequently extended by a third. Between these consonants, the ablaut vowel can occur. Vowel initial roots did not exist. Thus, an unextended root is one that consists of exactly two consonants. Lehmann (1951) clearly builds upon these root structure principles. He reasons as follows: the reconstructed roots *rei-, *reu- and *rep- all have a meaning like ‘break’ or ‘tear’, so they are in fact extended stem variants of one root. (...) PIE root structure then requires there to have been a consonant preceding the r — for else, stems like *re-i-, *re-u- and *re-p- would turn out to have monoconsonantal roots. Summarising, Lehmann’s article basically renders the idea that lack of r-initial inherited words in Greek, Armenian and Anatolian are indicative for the PIE situation.” Similarly, the argument can be extended for Proto-Indo-Uralic (Kortlandt 2004) as a vowel prosthesis before *r-, e.g. into *er-, where any vowel would be phonetically preceded by a glottal stop *her-, and then followed by syncope into *hr-.

[xv] There are probably more loanwords in extinct Northern Iranic.

[xvi] Samoyedic is less well investigated, hence the overwhelming majority of shared loanwords mostly between Finno-Permic and Ugric. However, there are some (Pre-)PIIr. borrowings common also to Samoyedic, and there are some loanwords found only in Samoyedic, including PIIr. and potentially PIr. stages (Kümmel 2019), which attests to continued contacts of Proto-Samoyedic with the Eurasian steppes from the Pre-Proto-Indo-Iranian stage to the Proto-Iranian stage.

[xvii] On the hypothetic ‘offshore Luwic’: “(...) there are scholars who maintain that Luwian or a closely related language was spread throughout the Aegean area, as it represents a key component of pre-Greek substrate. The main role in this argument is normally allotted to the toponyms in -(ι)νθo- and -(α)σσο-, such as λαβύρινθος “palace of the Cretan kings, Labyrinth” (da-pu2-ri-to- in the Mycenaean syllabic orthography) or Παρνασ(σ)ός ‘Mount Parnassus’. The first of these proper nouns was compared with the Carian toponym Λάβραυνδα (also Λάβρυανδα), while the second one finds a direct parallel in the Anatolian town name Parnassa, which is attested in cuneiform sources. Furthermore, the root of the first pair of toponyms is reminiscent of Hittite-Luwian labar-/dabar- ‘to rule’, while the root of the second one evokes the Hittite-Luwian stem parna- ‘house’. The suffixes -anda and -assa are productive with toponyms in Asia Minor, and the associated roots have a recognizable Hittite or Luwian character in many cases. If one accepts that they have the same origin as Greek -(ι)νθo- and -(α)σσο-, this can be used as an argument for the Luwian origin of such toponyms as Κόρινθος ‘Corinth’, Τίρυνθ- ‘Tiryns’, or Κνωσσός ‘Knossos’.” (Mouton, Rutherford, and Yakubovich 2013).

[xviii] A less compelling explanation is given by Kroonen (2013), by which geminated p may continue *hepos, i.e. a contamination form of the original paradigm found in Anatolian, expected nom. *hékus <*hekus, and the gen. *hépos <*hkós.

[xix] Because of the devoicing trend found in Proto-Greek and Proto-Armenian (arguably the first language to split from the common family), it is tempting to place Phrygian consonantal development as an innovation departing from this. For example, in aspirated stops, not *bh → Phryg. b, but rather *bh → **ph → **bh→ *b. See above for a similar evolution in Macedonian.

[xx] The proposal of a hypothetic Temematic substratum language (Holzer 1989) as a North-West Indo-European (i.e. centum) dialect absorbed by Balto-Slavic on its expansion to the west (a dialect of Indo-Slavonic, then), in spite of its defence by Kortlandt (Kortlandt 2018), is not tenable in light of the thorough review and dismissal by Matasović (2013) of all the proposed Temematic etymologies.

[xxi] More recently Kroonen (2013) listed ca. 220 broadly described ‘Northern European isoglosses’ (see above §3.2.7. Statistics of lexical isoglosses). Because of the lack of genetic relationship between Germanic and Balto-Slavic, the approximately 60 true shared stems between them—close to the number shared between Germanic and Celtic, and between Germanic and Italic—must be interpreted then generally (like the West Indo-European isoglosses) as ancient, North-West Indo-European stems which have only survived in these two specific branches.

[xxii] Kortlandt (2016) argued that an old PIA dative plural *-mus must have been replaced by the ablative ending *-bhos in Italic, Celtic, and Indo-Iranian (where *-bhi̯os may reflect the attachment of *-os to the instrumental forms in *-bhi-). Nevertheless, on one hand there is a general consensus that the original form behind Sla. *- and OLith. -mus (maybe influenced by Old Prussian) must have come from a dative-ablative plural *-mos (Olander 2005), cf. PGmc *-maz, and not from *-mus as suggested by Georgiev (1966) and Kortlandt (Halla-aho 2006). Similarly, the common instrumental in *-mi- behind Germanic and Balto-Slavic forms contrasts with the rest of the Late Indo-European domain, which shows *-bhi-.

An ending *-mos (and thus a *-m-/*-bh- variation) has also been argued to be quite old, based on enclitic pronouns Hitt. Dat. Pl. -š-maš, Kizzuwatna Luw. -mmaš < *s-mos, and Toch. 1st-3rd pl. A -m, B -me < *-mos (Bonmann 2017). However, this is highly controversial, based on the alternative interpretation of the enclitic pronoun origin as *-sm-os (Melchert 2018). On the other hand, we can reconstruct with a great degree of certainty an Indo-Anatolian adverbial ending *-bhi- (most likely at the origin of the common LPIE ending), as found e.g. in Hitt. kuwāpi ‘where, when’, kuwāpi-kki, ‘somewhere, sometime’ (<*kwo-bhi-), as well as in *χn̥tbhí, ‘on both sides, around’, from *χent-, ‘face, front’ (Jasanoff 1976), found widespread in all Late PIE dialects.

 

[xxiii] Verner’s law and Grimm’s law are usually considered together as the paradigmatic consonantal shift of Germanic, with some authors putting one before the other and vice versa. In this case, Verner’s law has been selected as the first one, due to its potential parallel development with Finno-Samic evolution (see below).

[xxiv] Kallio’s (2001) proposal of a common, non-Indo-European, non-Uralic substrate to justify the phonetic convergence of both Germanic and Finno-Samic is correctly described by Schrijver (2014) as an ad hoc solution which needs more assumptions than one of them influencing the other. In chronological terms, based on the described dialectal evolution, this means necessarily Finno-Samic influencing Germanic.

[xxv] From article on Proto-Slavic <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Slavic>, author unknown.

[xxvi] Examples by Juho Pystynen (2018).

[xxvii] The Tower of Babel Etymological Database Project at <http://starling.rinet.ru/> has been used for this task, especially for Proto-Turkic and common Micro-Altaic versions of the fable.

[xxviii] Proposed first by Sturtevant (1942) the condition of Anatolian as an archaic language “sister” to Indo-European from an Indo-Hittite parent language, this is still rejected by some scholars (Joseph 2000; Kazaryan 2017).

[xxix] On the *h2o problem, see De Decker (2014).