denotes a reconstructed form, not preserved in any written documents


denotes a reconstructed form through internal reconstruction

“comes from” or “is derived from”

“turns into” or “becomes”


indicates morpheme boundary, or separates off that part of a word that the reader should focus on

( )

encloses part of a word that is not relevant to the discussion, or that is an optional part


“zero desinence” or “zero-grade”


denotes a wrong formation