Table of Contents

Guide to the reader

Abbreviations

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Table of Contents.

Introduction

1. First stage

1.1. Indo-Uralic.

1.1.1. Indo-Uralic, or Early Indo-European and Early Uralic

1.1.2. Indo-Uralic proto-language

1.1.3. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Indo-Uralic

1.2. Early and Middle Indo-European

1.2.1. Early and Middle Indo-European evolution

1.2.2. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Indo-Anatolian

1.3. Early Uralic.

1.3.1. Early Uralic evolution

1.3.2. Early Uralic–Indo-Anatolian contacts

1.3.3. Schleicher’s fable in Early Proto-Uralic

2. Second stage

2.1. Anatolian

2.1.1. Anatolian as archaic Indo-European

2.1.2. Anatolian evolution and contacts

2.1.3. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Anatolian

2.2. Late Indo-European

2.2.1. Late Indo-European evolution

2.2.2. Late Indo-European culture

2.2.3. Late Indo-European dialects

2.2.4. Contacts of Late Indo-European with Uralic

2.2.5. Schleicher’s fable in Late Proto-Indo-European

2.3. Late Uralic.

2.3.1. Late Uralic evolution

2.3.2. Late Uralic culture

2.3.2. Late Uralic–Late Indo-European contacts

2.3.3. Schleicher’s fable in Late Proto-Uralic

3. Third stage

3.1. Tocharian

3.1.1. Tocharian as an archaic dialect

3.1.2. Tocharian evolution

3.1.3. External influences on Tocharian

3.1.4. Tocharian–Uralic contacts

3.1.5. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Tocharian

3.2. North-West Indo-European

3.2.1. North-West Indo-European community

3.2.2. North-West Indo-European evolution

3.2.3. Early European isoglosses

3.2.4. Classical North-West Indo-European

3.2.5. European agricultural substratum

3.2.6. Old European hydronymy

3.2.7. Statistics of lexical isoglosses

3.2.8. Schleicher’s fable in North-West Indo-European

3.3. Palaeo-Balkan

3.3.1. A Palaeo-Balkan community

3.3.2. Graeco-Armenian

3.3.3. Agricultural substrate of Graeco-Armenian

3.4. Indo-Iranian.

3.4.1. Indo-Iranian evolution

3.4.2. Influence from Uralic

3.4.3. Asian agricultural substratum

3.4.4. Mitanni Indic

3.4.5. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Indo-Iranian

3.5. Finno-Ugric.

3.5.1. Finno-Ugric evolution

3.5.2. Contacts with Indo-Iranian

3.5.3. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Finno-Ugric

3.6. Samoyedic

3.6.1. Samoyedic evolution

3.6.2. Samoyedic–Eastern Indo-European contacts

3.6.3. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Samoyedic

4. Fourth stage

4.1. Greek

4.1.1. Greek evolution

4.1.2. Contacts with Pre-Greek sources

4.1.3. Anatolian and Semitic contacts

4.1.4. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Greek

4.2. Macedonian

4.3. Phrygian

4.3.1. Phrygian evolution

4.3.2. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Phrygian

4.4. Thracian

4.5. Supradialectal communities

4.5.1. West Indo-European

4.5.2. Italo-Celtic

4.5.3. Northern European

4.6. Celtic

4.6.1. Celtic evolution

4.6.2. Proto-Celtic–Early Proto-Fennic contacts

4.6.3. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Celtic

4.7. Italic

4.7.1. Italic evolution

4.7.2. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Italic

4.8. Venetic

4.9. Messapic

4.9.1. Messapic evolution

4.9.2. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Messapic

4.10. Lusitanian.

4.10.1. Lusitanian evolution

4.10.2. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Lusitanian

4.11. Pre-Pritenic

4.12. Germanic

4.12.1. Germanic evolution

4.12.2. Finno-Samic influence on Pre-Germanic

4.12.3. Samic influence on Common Germanic

4.12.4. Contacts with Celtic and Iranian

4.12.5. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Germanic

4.13. Balto-Slavic

4.13.1. Balto-Slavic evolution

4.13.2. Uralic influence on Balto-Slavic

4.13.3. Contacts with Palaeo-Balkan languages

4.13.4. Contacts with Indo-Iranian

4.13.5. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Balto-Slavic

4.14. Armenian

4.14.1. Armenian evolution

4.14.2. Hurro-Urartian contacts

4.14.3. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Armenian

4.15. Illyrian

4.16. Albanian

4.16.1. Albanian evolution

4.16.2. Schleicher’s fable in Early Proto-Albanian

4.17. Finno-Permic

4.18. Finno-Samic.

4.18.1. Fennic

4.18.2. Samic

4.18.3. Contacts with Germanic

4.18.4. Contacts with Balto-Slavic

4.18.5. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Finno-Samic

4.19. Ugric

4.19.1. Ugric evolution

4.19.2. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Ugric

4.20. Yukaghir

4.20.1. Yukaghir evolution

4.20.2. Schleicher’s fable in Proto-Yukaghir

I. Schleicher’s fable in other proto-languages

I.1. Eurasiatic

I.1. Altaic

I.2. Afroasiatic.

I.2.1. Afrasian

I.2.2. Semitic

I.2.3. Northwest Semitic

I.3. Dravidian

I.4. Kartvelian

I.5. Nostratic

I.6. Northeast and Northwest Caucasian

I.7. Basque

I.8. Tyrsenian

II. Laryngeal loss and vocalism

II.1. Laryngeals.

II.2. Laryngeal evolution

II.2.1. Late Proto-Indo-European

II.2.2. Common Indo-European

II.2.3. Disintegrating Indo-European

II.2.4. Late Indo-European dialects

II.2.5. Laryngeal remnants in early Indo-European proto-languages?

II.2.6. Laryngeal reflexes in North-West Indo-European

II.3. In search for a stable paradigm

II.3.1. A more conservative model for laryngeal loss

II.3.2. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic data

II.4. Conclusion: An evolutionary view of laryngeal PIE

III. The three-dorsal theory

III.1. Introduction

III.2. In support of two series of velars

III.2.1. Allophones

III.2.2. Complementary distribution

III.2.3. Labiovelars in satem dialects

III.2.4. Natural evolution

III.2.5. Statistics of velars

III.2.6. Differences among satem dialects

III.2.7. Alternation

III.2.8. Number of satemisation trends

III.2.9. Generalised palatalisation trend

III.2.10. Palatalisation not defined by dialectal branch or territory

III.2.11. Prevalence of velar systems

III.3. In support of three series of velars

III.4. Conclusion.

References