A more recent, revised and updated version of this paper has been published (2019)


From Indo-European.info

Revision as of 09:00, 30 October 2017 by Admin (talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Anatolian has long been considered the first to branch out of Proto-Indo-European, due to its peculiar archaisms (Trager and Smith 1950), even before the proposal of a Late Indo-European community from which all other known IE languages branched out[Meid 1975][Kortlandt 1990][Lehmann 1992][Dunkel 1997][Melchert 1998][Adrados 1998][Ringe 2006][Mallory and Adams 2007][Beekes 2011].

In the Kurgan model, Anatolian was originally associated with the expansion of the Kurgan culture of the lower Volga and Kazakhstan into the Transcaucasian Copper Age culture ca. 2400-2300 BC[Gimbutas 1963]. With time, the Maykop culture has been demonstrated to be much older than previously thought, coinciding with the Uruk expansion in Mesopotamia after about 3700 BC, and especially ca. 3350 BC[Anthony 2007].

Even this new chronology does not fit well with the older guesstimates attributed to the split of Anatolian from a common Indo-Hittite stem. Also, there is a strong genetic continuity in the Armenian highlands during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic, and partially also during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age[Lazaridis et al. 2016][Margaryan et al. 2017], explained by a history of genetic isolation from their surroundings[Haber, Mezzavilla, Xue, et al. 2016]. These data contradict an expansion of peoples from the steppe through the Caucasus.

In Anatolia, the low genetic diversity of early Middle Eastern farmers, which migrated into south-eastern Europe from north-western Anatolia during the early Neolithic, was broken by another wave of ‘eastern’ ancestry that reached south-eastern Europe before at least ca. 3800 BC. These migrants brought CHG ancestry and J-M304 lineages – typical of Caucasus and eastern Iranian populations – to the late Neolithic central and western Anatolia[Lazaridis et al. 2016][Kilinc et al. 2016].

This ‘eastern’ ancestry may have been caused by interactions between central Anatolia and the Fertile Crescent in the late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B[Özdoğan 2008], a migration related to other inter-regional exchanges, or admixture among local populations. The Tepecik-Çiftlik site’s presumed role as an obsidian hub, and its cultural links with the Levant, might have started already before the Pottery Neolithic[Kilinc et al. 2016].

Anthony’s proposal of a western migration route of Anatolian-speaking peoples through the Balkans with the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka complex ca. 4200 BC[Anthony 2007][Anthony and Ringe 2015] is supported by the resurge of haplogroup R1b-M343 (potentially R1b1a1a2-M269 subclades) and the presence of steppe ancestry in samples of the North-West Pontic steppe and the Balkans – although they point to slightly earlier dates, during the mid-fifth millennium[Mathieson et al. 2017].

Anatolian Middle Bronze Age migrations ca. 1900 BC saw the destruction of cities, from the Ezero culture in south-eastern Europe to north-west and north-central Anatolia[Mellaart 1958]. Although traditionally associated with an east-west movement of peoples, it could well represent the opposite direction, thus including expanding Anatolian-speaking peoples through northern Anatolia, from the west to the central part. Samples from Bronze Age south-western Anatolia (ca. 2800-1800 BC) show the ‘eastern’ contribution of CHG, but lacking steppe-related EHG and WHG ancestry[Lazaridis et al. 2016].

copper-age-early_steppe.jpg Diachronic map of Copper Age migrations ca. 3100-2600 BC [Anthony 2007][Harrison and Heyd 2007][Sjogren, Price, and Kristiansen 2016][Heyd 2007][Heyd 2014].

bronze_age_early_Middle.jpg Diachronic map of migrations in south-eastern Europe ca. 2250-1750 BC [Anthony 2007][Krause 2013][Hanks, Epimakhov, and Renfrew 2015][Jaeger 2012][Kristiansen and Larsson 2005][Fokkens and Harding 2013][Meller et al. 2015].

bronze_age_middle_Middle.jpg Diachronic map of migrations in south-eastern Europe ca. 1750-1250 BC [Anthony 2007][Kristiansen 2016][Kristiansen 2014][Fokkens and Harding 2013][Wels-Weyrauch 2011][Przybyła 2009][Makarowicz 2009].

bronze_age_late_Middle.jpg Diachronic map of migrations in south-eastern Europe ca. 1250-750 BC[Butler, Arnoldussen, and Steegstra 2011/2012][Wels-Weyrauch 2011][Kristiansen 2000][Przybyła 2009], LDA-LSA.

The modern distribution of R1b1a1a2-M269 haplogroup in the Balkans and Anatolia (not reaching the Armenian highlands) points to the posterior migration of R1b1a1a2-M269 lineages with Anatolian languages. Its modern peak around Kosovo can be explained by posterior founder effects, which might have happened during any expansion of peoples in the region in the past four thousand years. We can tentatively assign one of these founder effects to a recent Albanian expansion.

r1b-M269.jpg Modern distribution of R1b1a1a2-M269 (xL23) lineages, adapted from Richard Rocca (2012).


  • [Adrados 1998] ^ Adrados 1998. La reconstrucción del indoeuropeo y de su diferenciación dialectal. In Manual de lingüística indoeuropea, edited by F. R. Adrados, A. Bernabé and J. Mendoza. Madrid: Ediciones clásicas.
  • [Anthony 2007] ^ 1 2 3 4 5 Anthony, D. 2007. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
  • [Anthony and Ringe 2015] ^ Anthony, David W., and Don Ringe. 2015. The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives. Annual Review of Linguistics 1 (1):199-219.
  • [Beekes 2011] ^ Beekes, Robert S.P. 2011. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. An introduction. 2nd ed. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • [Czekaj-Zastawny, Kabaciński, and Terberger 2015] Czekaj-Zastawny, Agnieszka, Jacek Kabaciński, and Thomas Terberger. 2015. Long distance exchange in the Central European Neolithic: Hungary to the Baltic. Antiquity 85 (327):43-58.
  • [Dunkel 1997] ^ Dunkel, G.E. 1997. Early, Middle, Late Indo-European: Doing it My Way. Incontri Linguistici 20:29-44.
  • [Gimbutas 1963] ^ Gimbutas, Marija. 1963. The Indo-Europeans: Archeological Problems. American Anthropologist 65 (4):815-836.
  • [Haber, Mezzavilla, Xue, et al. 2016] ^ Haber, M., M. Mezzavilla, Y. Xue, D. Comas, P. Gasparini, P. Zalloua, and C. Tyler-Smith. 2016. Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations. Eur J Hum Genet 24 (6):931-6.
  • [Kilinc et al. 2016] ^ 1 2 Kilinc, G. M., A. Omrak, F. Ozer, T. Gunther, A. M. Buyukkarakaya, E. Bicakci, D. Baird, H. M. Donertas, A. Ghalichi, R. Yaka, D. Koptekin, S. C. Acan, P. Parvizi, M. Krzewinska, E. A. Daskalaki, E. Yuncu, N. D. Dagtas, A. Fairbairn, J. Pearson, G. Mustafaoglu, Y. S. Erdal, Y. G. Cakan, I. Togan, M. Somel, J. Stora, M. Jakobsson, and A. Gotherstrom. 2016. The Demographic Development of the First Farmers in Anatolia. Curr Biol 26 (19):2659-2666.
  • [Kortlandt 1990] ^ Kortlandt, Frederik. 1990. The spread of the Indo-Europeans. Journal of Indo-European Studies 18 (2):131-140.
  • [Lazaridis et al. 2016] ^ 1 2 3 Lazaridis, I., D. Nadel, G. Rollefson, D. C. Merrett, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, D. Fernandes, M. Novak, B. Gamarra, K. Sirak, S. Connell, K. Stewardson, E. Harney, Q. Fu, G. Gonzalez-Fortes, E. R. Jones, S. A. Roodenberg, G. Lengyel, F. Bocquentin, B. Gasparian, J. M. Monge, M. Gregg, V. Eshed, A. S. Mizrahi, C. Meiklejohn, F. Gerritsen, L. Bejenaru, M. Bluher, A. Campbell, G. Cavalleri, D. Comas, P. Froguel, E. Gilbert, S. M. Kerr, P. Kovacs, J. Krause, D. McGettigan, M. Merrigan, D. A. Merriwether, S. O'Reilly, M. B. Richards, O. Semino, M. Shamoon-Pour, G. Stefanescu, M. Stumvoll, A. Tonjes, A. Torroni, J. F. Wilson, L. Yengo, N. A. Hovhannisyan, N. Patterson, R. Pinhasi, and D. Reich. 2016. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature 536 (7617):419-24. https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19310
  • [Lehmann 1992] ^ Lehmann, W.P. 1992. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. London: Routledge.
  • [Mallory and Adams 2007] ^ Mallory, J., and D. Q. Adams. 2007. A Place in Time. In The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World, edited by J. Mallory and R. B. Adams. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • [Margaryan et al. 2017] ^ Margaryan, Ashot, Miroslava Derenko, Hrant Hovhannisyan, Boris Malyarchuk, Rasmus Heller, Zaruhi Khachatryan, Pavel Avetisyan, Ruben Badalyan, Arsen Bobokhyan, Varduhi Melikyan, Gagik Sargsyan, Ashot Piliposyan, Hakob Simonyan, Ruzan Mkrtchyan, Galina Denisova, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Eske Willerslev, and Morten E. Allentoft. 2017. Eight Millennia of Matrilineal Genetic Continuity in the South Caucasus. Current Biology.
  • [Mathieson et al. 2017] ^ Mathieson, Iain, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Cosimo Posth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Iñigo Olade, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Olivia Cheronet, Daniel Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Beatriz Gamarra, Gloria González Fortes, Wolfgang Haak, Eadaoin Harney, Ben Krause-Kyora, Isil Kucukkalipci, Megan Michel, Alissa Mittnik, Kathrin Nägele, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nick Patterson, Saskia Pfrengle, Kendra Sirak, Kristin Stewardson, Stefania Vai, Stefan Alexandrov, Kurt W. Alt, Radian Andreescu, Dragana Antonović, Abigail Ash, Nadezhda Atanassova, Krum Bacvarov, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Hervé Bocherens, Michael Bolus, Adina Boroneanţ, Yavor Boyadzhiev, Alicja Budnik, Josip Burmaz, Stefan Chohadzhiev, Nicholas J. Conard, Richard Cottiaux, Maja Čuka, Christophe Cupillard, Dorothée G. Drucker, Nedko Elenski, Michael Francken, Borislava Galabova, Georgi Ganetovski, Bernard Gely, Tamás Hajdu, Veneta Handzhyiska, Katerina Harvati, Thomas Higham, Stanislav Iliev, Ivor Janković, Ivor Karavanić, Douglas J. Kennett, Darko Komšo, Alexandra Kozak, Damian Labuda, Martina Lari, Catalin Lazar, Maleen Leppek, Krassimir Leshtakov, Domenico Lo Vetro, Dženi Los, Ivaylo Lozanov, Maria Malina, Fabio Martini, Kath McSweeney, Harald Meller, Marko Menđušić, Pavel Mirea, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Vanya Petrova, T. Douglas Price, Angela Simalcsik, Luca Sineo, Mario Šlaus, Vladimir Slavchev, Petar Stanev, Andrej Starović, Tamás Szeniczey, Sahra Talamo, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Corinne Thevenet, Ivan Valchev, Frédérique Valentin, Sergey Vasilyev, Fanica Veljanovska, Svetlana Venelinova, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, Bence Viola, Cristian Virag, Joško Zaninović, Steve Zäuner, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Giulio Catalano, Raiko Krauß, David Caramelli, Gunita Zariņa, Bisserka Gaydarska, Malcolm Lillie, Alexey G. Nikitin, Inna Potekhina, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Dušan Borić, Clive Bonsall, Johannes Krause, Ron Pinhasi, and David Reich. 2017. The Genomic History Of Southeastern Europe. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/135616
  • [Meid 1975] ^ Meid, W. 1975. Probleme der räumlichen und zeitlichen Gliederung der Indogermanischen. In Flexion und Wortbildung, edited by H. Rix. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
  • [Melchert 1998] ^ Melchert, H. Craig. 1998. The dialectal position of Anatolian within Indo-European. In Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society.
  • [Mellaart 1958] ^ Mellaart, James. 1958. The End of the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia and the Aegean. American Journal of Archaeology 62 (1):9-33.
  • [Özdoğan 2008] ^ Özdoğan, M. 2008. An alternative approach in tracing changes in demographic composition. In The Neolithic Demographic Transition and Its Consequences, edited by Bar-Yosef O. and B.-A. J.P.: Springer.
  • [Piezonka 2015] Piezonka, Henny. 2015. Older than the farmers' pots? Hunter-gatherer ceramics east of the Baltic Sea. In The Dąbki Site in Pomerania and the Neolithisation of the North European Lowlands (c. 5000-3000 calBC), edited by J. Kabaciński, S. Hatz, R. D. C. M. and T. Terberger. Rahden/Westf.: Marie Leidorf.
  • [Ringe 2006] ^ Ringe, D. 2006. A Linguistic History of English: Volume I, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2006. Edited by D. Ringe. 2 vols. Vol. 1, A Linguistic History of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.