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== Corded Ware culture horizons ==
 
  
The first horizon of Corded Ware culture appears in the Early Eneolithic Bubanj-Salcuţa-Krivodol cultural complex and other Old European cultures in the eastern Balkans only sporadically, possibly from influence of the Sredni Stog culture, at the end of the 5th millennium BC (ca. 4200 BC), in territories of autochthonous ceramic forms not associated with the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka expansion. This pottery developed in a western Pontic territory where corded ornament seems correlated with sheep herding. The spread of this pottery is clearly (and almost exclusively) identified with the Coţofeni group in the 2nd Corded Ware horizon, as part of the cultures of the Lower Danube and northern Bulgaria in the 4th millennium and the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. These cultures are connected with movements of steppe-related Cernavodă I society in the Danube delta, to the north into Coţofeni, and south into Ezerovo [Bulatović 2014].
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The first horizon of Corded Ware culture appears in the Early Eneolithic Bubanj-Salcuţa-Krivodol cultural complex and other Old European cultures in the eastern Balkans only sporadically, possibly from influence of the Sredni Stog culture, at the end of the 5th millennium BC (ca. 4200 BC), in territories of autochthonous ceramic forms not associated with the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka expansion. This pottery developed in a western Pontic territory where corded ornament seems correlated with sheep herding. The spread of this pottery is clearly (and almost exclusively) identified with the Coţofeni group in the 2nd Corded Ware horizon, as part of the cultures of the Lower Danube and northern Bulgaria in the 4th millennium and the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. These cultures are connected with movements of steppe-related Cernavodă I society in the Danube delta, to the north into Coţofeni, and south into Ezerovo[Bulatović 2014].
  
Samples from the Balkans of the late 5th and middle 4th millennium, after the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka expansion, show steppe ancestry (see above). Also, a sample identified as outlier from Deriivka ca. 3500 BC shows both Caucasian hunter-gatherer and Middle Eastern farmer ancestry [Mathieson et al. 2017], which illustrates the complexity of human interaction in this western Pontic region between the main (Middle and Late) Indo-European expansions.  
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Samples from the Balkans at Varna I (ca. 4630 BC), and Smyadovo (ca. 4500 BC), even before the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka expansion, and 1,500 years before the Yamna expansion, already show the so-called ‘Yamna component’[Mathieson et al. 2017]. Before that, more than 20 samples from the Ukraine Eneolithic at Deriivka and Volynia (ca. 5150 BC) showed mostly EHG ancestry, like Ukraine Mesolithic samples, but with a contribution from WHG ancestry (see [[Mesolithic-Neolithic transition|transition to Neolithic]]), so the contribution of CHG to both Ukraine Middle Neolithic and Old European samples must have happened later.
  
The Corded Ware culture territory expanded from the Coţofeni territory to the south during the Eneolithic period, except for the central Balkans, where new steppe elements are noticed during this period. The Usatovo culture, settled in the territory of the Trypillian culture, replaced the Coţofeni culture at the time of the expansion of the third horizon of the Corded Ware culture into Central Europe. The spread of this classical period of the Corded Ware culture has been connected to the evolution of late Funnelbeaker culture infiltrated by late Trypillian groups, after which they could have entered into contacts with Yamna herders on the upper Dniester region ca. 2700-2600 BC [Anthony 2007][Gimbutas 1977]. However, no previous direct cultural connection has been found in this area with Yamna [Bulatović 2014].
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The Corded Ware culture territory expanded from the Coţofeni territory to the south during the Eneolithic period, except for the central Balkans, where new steppe elements are noticed during this period. The Usatovo culture, settled in the territory of the Trypillian culture, replaced the Coţofeni culture at the time of the expansion of the third horizon of the Corded Ware culture into Central Europe.  
  
There was a long-ranging connection between the north-west Pontic steppe area and the border of the Forest Zone up to the eastern Baltic area, centred on the Dniester-Bug limes (encompassing the Dniester, Dnieper, and Bug rivers), but also encompassing the areas between the Vistula and the Dnieper (including the Małopolska area), with different connecting routes to the north used by Old European – and especially Trypillian culture – societies influencing Baltic cultures of the steppe, forest-steppe and forest zones for millennia [Klochko and Kośko 2009][Szmyt 2013][Czebreszuk and Szmyt 2004][Kadrow and Zakościelna 1999].
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There was a long-ranging connection between the north-west Pontic steppe area and the border of the Forest Zone up to the eastern Baltic area, centred on the Dniester-Bug limes (encompassing the Dniester, Dnieper, and Bug rivers). It also included the areas between the Vistula and the Dnieper (with the Lesser Poland area) – which topographically form a natural continuum. The origin of this expanding third horizon has been placed, as one of the best defined archaeological ideas in Archaeology, in this region between Lesser Poland and adjacent regions of Ukraine and Slovakia, confirmed by radiocarbon analysis to ca. 3000-2900 BC[Kristiansen 1989][Włodarczak 2008][Kristiansen et al. 2017][Anthony and Brown 2017][Kadrow 2008].  
  
The connection between pre-Caucasian (Maykop) and Late Trypillian cultures that had moved to the left bank of the Dnieper (see above) points not only to Caucasian imports, but to a likely Caucasian immigration in a series of small shifts or ‘shuttle’ movements, possibly with the aim of exchange, trade, spoils of war, borrowing of technological devices, etc. This migration is linked to the creation of “bridge” communities, like the Zhyvotylivska-Volchans’k cultural group, and the Late Trypillian Gordineşti group [Ivanova and Toschev 2015]. These migrations could account for the later steppe-related ancestry found in Corded Ware cultures [Allentoft et al. 2015][Haak et al. 2015][Mathieson et al. 2015], since it is defined by a certain admixture of Eastern European and Caucasian hunter-gatherer ancestry, not found in samples from western Yamna migrants.
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Different connecting routes to the north were used by Old European (and especially Trypillian culture) societies from the steppe, forest-steppe and Forest Zone, influencing the Funnelbeaker and Baltic cultures for millennia [Klochko and Kośko 2009][Szmyt 2013][Czebreszuk and Szmyt 2004][Kadrow and Zakościelna 1999]. This natural continuum in eastern Europe saw large scale economic and social changes, with Baden and Globular Amphorae Cultures playing a major role [Kristiansen 1989][Kristiansen et al. 2017].  
  
The most recent connection of the north Pontic steppe to Central European areas came from Usatovo (which continued the previous Gordineşti group), whose migrants seem to have penetrated in the first half of the 3rd millennium BC northward up the Dniester, South Bug and Dnieper valleys, as Globular Amphorae and Corded Ware cultures expanded to the east beginning ca. 2900 BC, forming the Middle Dnieper culture in the forest-steppe zone around Kiev ca. 2800-2600 BC [Anthony 2007].
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The connection between pre-Caucasian (Maykop) and Late Trypillian cultures that had moved to the left bank of the Dnieper points not only to Caucasian imports, but to a likely Caucasian immigration in a series of small shifts or ‘shuttle’ movements, possibly with the aim of exchange, trade, spoils of war, borrowing of technological devices, etc. This migration is linked to the creation of “bridge” communities, like the Zhyvotylivska-Volchans’k cultural group, and the Late Trypillian Gordineşti group[Ivanova and Toschev 2015].  
  
[[File:Eneolithic forest.jpg]]
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A sample identified as an Ukraine Eneolithic outlier from Deriivka (ca. 3500 BC), and a Trypillian outlier from the Verteba cave (ca. 3325 BC), show contributions from both CHG and Middle Eastern farmer ancestry[Mathieson et al. 2017]. The new farmer ancestry found further illustrates the complexity of human interaction in this western Pontic region between the main Neolithic (Middle PIE) and Chalcolithic (Late PIE) expansions.
''Diachronic map of Eneolithic migrations ca. 4000-3100 BC [Anthony 2007][Szmyt 2013][Piezonka 2015], [http://context-database.uni-koeln.de/ Uni-Köln].''
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The roots of the third horizon of the Corded Ware culture is to be found at the end of the 4th millennium in Podolia and Volynia, and scattered Corded Ware sites from these regions to the east of the Bug river, show old and young stages of the culture[Kadrow 2008]. In this region, Funnelbeaker traits are not found, and the late Globular Amphora culture expansions to this region (after ca. 2950 BC) cannot account for its migrations.
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In Lesser Poland, during the first 300 years of its existence, the Corded Ware culture developed among the settlements of the agrarian Baden and Globular Amphora cultures, without mixing[Włodarczak 2001], among a complex regional picture formed during the 4th millennium[Zastawny 2015][Wilk 2016].
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Sampled individuals from Globular Amphora culture in Poland and Ukraine form a tight genetic cluster, showing genetic homogeneity over a large distance, with 25% WHG, which suggests a persistent frontier between east-central and eastern European groups[Mathieson et al. 2017]. However, central European Neolithic samples from Benzigerode-Heimburg (ca. 3960 BC) have a similar admixture and cluster closely with Corded Ware samples, which are more than 1,500 years younger[Haak et al. 2015].
  
On the other hand, while Corded Ware culture research is discussed as a purely Central-European phenomenon, recently obtained dates suggest that the appearance of Corded Ware in central Russia (either of early Fatyanovo or maybe proto-stages) may had begun from 2700-2600 onwards, with eastern influence found in the southern Baltic and Estonia, connecting cultures previously identified as non-Corded Ware to the emergence of the new cultural expansion, with ''continua'' proposed between late Comb Ware and Corded Ware pottery. The communication between Forest Zone hunter-gatherers had old roots, and Corded Ware chronology needs further refinement, because Corded Ware was present in the northern Baltic Sea region since ca. 2800 BC [Nordqvist 2016].
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At the end of the Trypillian culture, herding/hunting trends intensified, and the agricultural system collapsed, with people moving to the steppe zone, as confirmed by the presence of numerous graves to the south[Rassamakin 1999]. At the same time, Trypillian world absorbed a foreign tradition related to materials of settlement sites of Dnieper steppes, such as the late Sredni Stog culture, like cord impressions and burial rites similar to the later Corded Ware culture, marking also the transformation of decors and changes in their interpretation[Palaguta 2007].
  
The most recent sample from Zvejnieki, dated ca. 2885 BC, just before or during the expansion of the third Corded Ware horizon, clusters quite closely with Yamna samples, revealing a break of the regional population with the samples from a thousand years earlier, which were closer to Eastern European hunger-gatherer ancestry [Mathieson et al. 2017].
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The similarity in burial rituals between Yamna and Corded Ware made Gimbutas define a common “Kurgan people”, whose relationship has also been long supported by Kristiansen[Kristiansen 1989][Kristiansen et al. 2017]. An equivalence of both burial rites has been, however, rejected[Häusler 1963][Häusler 1978], and it is generally agreed that the Yamna culture did not expand to the north of the Tisza River.
  
R1a1a1b-Z645, split from R1a1a1-M417 ca. 3500 BC, shows a TMRCA of ca. 3000 BC, coinciding with the formation date for mainly-European subclades R1a1a1b1-Z283 and R1a1a1b1a-Z282, and mainly-Asian subclade R1a1a1b2-Z93. The common TMRCA for R1a1a1b1-Z283 and R1a1a1b1a-Z282 suggests an expansion at nearly the same time as peoples of Corded Ware cultures are supposed to have migrated east- and westward, reaching the Middle Elbe-Saale region, where most aDNA samples analysed come from, about 2750 BC. The common TMRCA of 2700 BC for modern Asian lineages gives support to a later successful expansion into Asia centred on the eastern part of the Pontic-Caspian steppes.
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After ca. 3300 BC global climatic changes increased fluvial activities in river valleys and caused deforestation, intensified by human agents (due to agricultural needs), which favoured pastoralism and nomadisation of the settlement system, and a consequent change of the social structure[Kristiansen 1989][Kadrow 2008]. These changes were stabilised by a new ideology and new symbols imprinted in material culture, a new “picture of the world” of the emerging community, consisting of new and old local elements, into a new, original Corded Ware culture[Kadrow 2008][Habermas 2002].
  
Y-DNA samples of haplogroup R1a-M420 (probably R1a1a1-M417) are found in central Corded Ware culture groups [Allentoft et al. 2015][Mathieson et al. 2015][Haak et al. 2008][Mittnik et al. 2017][Saag et al. 2017], with one sample in Bergrheinfeld (ca. 2647), two samples in Eulau (ca. 2600 BC), one sample<ref>Published as corresponding to Nordic Middle Neolithic culture, additional information by Vladimir Tagankin revealed a branch typical of modern Nordic (R1a1a1b1a3-Z284) subclades, and a new date of ca. 2475 BC, including reduction for high marine signal.</ref> from Kyndelöse (ca. 2670 BC), seven samples from Esperstedt (one dated ca. 2430 BC and other six ca. 2275 BC), and two from the Battle Axe culture, one from Viby (ca. 2500 BC), and one from Ölsund  (ca. 2350 BC). Two samples from Tiefbrunn of haplogroups R-M207 (ca. 2755 BC) and R1b1-L278 (ca. 2725 BC) are of dubious nature – the first could be R1a1a1-M417 or R1b1-L278, the second might correspond to older European hunter-gatherer lineages, or they might be associated with the expansion of Corded Ware cultures from the Balkans. Other non-R-M207 samples from central Corded Ware cultures include the two oldest ones, of IJ and G2a-P15 lineages, from Jagodno ca. 2800 BC [Gworys et al. 2013]; and one of haplogroup P-P295 in Esperstedt from ca. 2275 BC.
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<span class="plainlinks">[https://indo-european.eu/maps/eneolithic/ https://indo-european.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/eneolithic_forest.jpg]</span>
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''Diachronic map of Eneolithic migrations ca. 4000-3100 BC [Anthony 2007][Szmyt 2013][Piezonka 2015], [http://context-database.uni-koeln.de/ Uni-Köln].''
  
In the Baltic and the Forest zone, four samples are dated around 2500 BC: haplogroups R1a1a1b-Z645 and R1a1a1b1-Z283 in Kunila, and two samples of haplogroup R1a1a1b-Z645 in Ardu. These samples together with its previous presence in Usvyatyan culture (ca. 2500 BC) and in Naumovo and Sertaya II [Chekunova et al. 2014], and its continuity in later times suggest that R1a1a1b-Z645 lineages almost fully replaced the previous R1b-M343 lineages in the eastern Baltic around the time of the Corded Ware culture expansion.
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Samples from the Balkan Neolithic and outliers from west Ukraine and Trypillia that show Yamna ancestry (see [[Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer ancestry and Indo-Hittite|CHG ancestry]]) cluster closely together, and close to later central European samples from Corded Ware and Bell Beaker cultures. However, they show less ‘east Yamna’ ancestry than some later Corded Ware samples, which suggests that the original expanding population from the third Corded Ware horizon was a different one, probably to the east of the Trypillian settlement sampled.
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The importance of horse exploitation in Deriivka, in the forest-steppe zone of the north Pontic region along the Dnieper region, during the Middle Eneolithic period (probably ca. 3700-3530 BC), suggests that horses played a significant role in the life of this Sredni Stog community[Anthony and Brown 2003]. In its late period (ca. 4000-3500 BC), this culture had adopted corded ware pottery, and stone battle-axes.
  
The oldest R1a1a1-M417 lineages of Central Europe are found in early Corded Ware groups, while ancient DNA from Neolithic Linear Pottery (ca. 5500–3500 BC) and Globular Amphorae (ca. 3400-2800 BC) cultures have been found to correspond mainly to I2-M438 and G2a-P15 lineages, with no steppe-related ancestry in admixture analyses [Haak et al. 2015][Mathieson et al. 2017]. This raises the possibility of a wide and rapid spread of R1a1a1-M417, and especially R1a1a1b1-Z283 subclades in Europe [Underhill et al. 2015] associated with the expansion of the Corded Ware culture. The diversification of R1a1a1b2-Z93 in the Middle East and South Asia remains more obscure [Underhill et al. 2015].
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However, this western steppe peoples were mainly hunters[Rassamakin 1999], and the ‘herding skill’ essential for wild horse domestication seems absent[Kuzmina 2003]. All this has been confirmed with zooarchaeological evidence and new molecular and stable isotope results, suggesting an absence of horse domestication in territories of the late Sredni Stog culture in the north Pontic steppe[Mileto et al. 2017], before the advent of migrants from the Indo-European-speaking Repin culture.
However, in samples obtained from Estonia it was seen that admixture between Corded Ware culture farmers and Comb Ceramic culture hunter-gatherers may have been limited in males of R1a1a1-M417 lineages. Also, the presence of a genetic component associated with Caucasus hunter-gatherers – also present in Yamna migrants, Eastern hunter-gatherers, and individuals from the Estonian Comb Ceramic culture, means that the expansion of the Corded Ware culture cannot be seen as the sole means for the spread of this genetic component, at least in eastern Europe [Saag et al. 2017].
 
  
<span class="plainlinks">[{{fullurl:File:Mathieson_Olalde.jpg}} https://indo-european.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/genetics2_3.jpg]</span>
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There is an increased ‘Yamna component’ found later in samples from Yamna culture samples in Ukraine. A original migration of the Corded Ware culture the western steppe and steppe-forest zone is therefore likely, and may account for the later common Yamna component found between Yamna and Corded Ware individuals[Allentoft et al. 2015][Haak et al. 2015][Mathieson et al. 2015]. This increased Yamna component is not found in Yamna migrants from the Balkans, like those from Mednikarovo (ca. 2960 BC) and from the Vučedol culture (ca. 2745 BC).
  
<small>''Modified file from recent papers on ancient samples from Eastern European, Southeastern European,  Western European, and Bell Beaker cultures: '''Left''': ADMIXTURE clustering analysis with k=8 showing ancient individuals. E/M/MLN, Early/Middle/Middle Late Neolithic; W/E/S/CHG, Western/Eastern/Scandinavian/Caucasus hunter-gatherers[Olalde et al. 2017]. '''Center''': Supervised ADMIXTURE plot, modeling each ancient individual (one per row), as a mixture of populations represented by clusters containing Anatolian Neolithic (grey), Yamnaya from Samara (orange), EHG (red) and WHG (blue). Dates indicate approximate range of individuals in each population[Mathieson et al. 2017]. '''Right''': Ancestral components in ancient individuals estimated by ADMIXTURE (k=11)[Mittnik et al. 2017].''</small>
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No direct cultural connection has been found in this area with Yamna migrants[Bulatović 2014]. Only later, during the contemporaneous Corded Ware and Yamna migration waves were direct contacts possibly between Yamna and Corded Ware herders on the upper Dniester region[Anthony 2007][Gimbutas 1977].  
  
The Corded Ware culture has been argued to practice exogamy – most adult women being of non-local origin – based on a recent work on diet and mobility [Sjogren, Price, and Kristiansen 2016], and mtDNA has been documented to be more varied among Corded Ware females than men [Lazaridis et al. 2014]. Exogamy is described as a well-established practice over a long period of time, and the origin of females has been linked to Neolithic cultures still residing on the higher elevations in the region shared with Corded Ware cultures [Kristiansen et al. 2017]. A violent picture has been proposed for the Corded Ware culture society [Haak et al. 2008], with warrior youth bands with seasonal activities, in a way similar to that documented in the Russian steppe from the Bronze Age onwards [Kristiansen et al. 2017].  
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The most recent direct connection of the north Pontic steppe to Central European areas came from Usatovo, which continued the previous Gordineşti group. Usatovo migrants seem to have penetrated in the first half of the 3rd millennium BC northward up the Dniester, South Bug and Dnieper valleys, as Globular Amphorae and Corded Ware cultures expanded to the east beginning ca. 2900 BC, forming the Middle Dnieper culture in the forest-steppe zone around Kiev ca. 2800-2600 BC[Anthony 2007].  
  
Analysis of aDNA has revealed that the plague was a prehistoric disease, associated with the Eurasian steppes, and linked to the Corded Ware culture expansion [Rasmussen et al. 2015][Andrades Valtueña et al. 2017], which connected vast areas in east Europe in a relatively short period. This might have provided part of the ‘push’ for the migration of Corded Ware cultures [Anthony and Brown 2017], and might also account for part of the documented differences in population expansion between Corded Ware and Bell Beaker groups, and their demographic consequences.
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Corded Ware culture research is usually discussed as a purely east-central European phenomenon. However, recently obtained dates suggest that the appearance of Corded Ware in central Russia (either of early Fatyanovo or maybe proto-stages) may had begun from 2700-2600 onwards, and earlier in the Baltic[Lougas, Kriiska, and Maldre 2016]. Eastern influence is found in the southern Baltic and Estonia, connecting cultures previously identified as non-Corded Ware to the emergence of the new cultural expansion, with continuums proposed between late Comb Ware and Corded Ware pottery.  
  
<span class="plainlinks">[{{fullurl:File:Copper-age-early-2-corded2.jpg}} https://indo-european.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/copper-age-early-2-corded2.jpg]</span>
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The communication between Forest Zone hunter-gatherers had old roots, and Corded Ware chronology needs further refinement, because Corded Ware was present in the northern Baltic Sea region since ca. 2800 BC[Nordqvist 2016].
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<span class="plainlinks">[https://indo-european.eu/maps/copper-age/ https://indo-european.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/chalcolithic_early_CWC.jpg]</span>
 
''Diachronic map of Copper Age migrations ca. 3100-2600 BC [Anthony 2007][Harrison and Heyd 2007][Sjogren, Price, and Kristiansen 2016][Heyd 2012][Heyd 2014]. ''  
 
''Diachronic map of Copper Age migrations ca. 3100-2600 BC [Anthony 2007][Harrison and Heyd 2007][Sjogren, Price, and Kristiansen 2016][Heyd 2012][Heyd 2014]. ''  
  
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* [*Anthony 2007] Anthony, D. 2007. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
 
* [*Anthony 2007] Anthony, D. 2007. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
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* [*Anthony and Brown 2003] Anthony, David W., and Dorcas R. Brown. 2003. Eneolithic horse rituals and riding in the steppes: new evidence. In Prehistoric Steppe Adaptation and the Horse, edited by M. A. Levine, C. Renfrew and K. V. Boyle. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
  
 
* [*Anthony and Brown 2017] Anthony, D.W., and D. R. Brown. 2017. Molecular Archaeology and Indo-European linguistics: Impressions from new data. In Usque ad Radices: Indo-European Studies in Honour  of Birgit Anette Olsen, edited by B. Simmelkjær, S. Hansen, A. Hyllested, A. R. Jørgensen, G. Kroonen, J. H. Larsson, B. N. Whitehead, T. Olander and T. M. Søborg. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
 
* [*Anthony and Brown 2017] Anthony, D.W., and D. R. Brown. 2017. Molecular Archaeology and Indo-European linguistics: Impressions from new data. In Usque ad Radices: Indo-European Studies in Honour  of Birgit Anette Olsen, edited by B. Simmelkjær, S. Hansen, A. Hyllested, A. R. Jørgensen, G. Kroonen, J. H. Larsson, B. N. Whitehead, T. Olander and T. M. Søborg. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
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* [*Gworys et al. 2013] Gworys, Bohdan, Joanna Rosińczuk-Tonderys, Aleksander Chrószcz, Maciej Janeczek, Andrzej Dwojak, Justyna Bazan, Mirosław Furmanek, Tadeusz Dobosz, Małgorzata Bonar, Anna Jonkisz, and Ireneusz Całkosiński. 2013. Assessment of late Neolithic pastoralist's life conditions from the Wroclaw–Jagodno site (SW Poland) on the basis of physiological stress markers. Journal of Archaeological Science 40 (6):2621-2630.
 
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* [*Habermas 2002] Habermas, Jürgen. 2002. Habermas, Jürgen. Teoria działania komunikacyjnego 2. Warszawa.
  
 
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* [*Haak et al. 2015] Haak, W., I. Lazaridis, N. Patterson, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, B. Llamas, G. Brandt, S. Nordenfelt, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, Q. Fu, A. Mittnik, E. Banffy, C. Economou, M. Francken, S. Friederich, R. G. Pena, F. Hallgren, V. Khartanovich, A. Khokhlov, M. Kunst, P. Kuznetsov, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, N. Nicklisch, S. L. Pichler, R. Risch, M. A. Rojo Guerra, C. Roth, A. Szecsenyi-Nagy, J. Wahl, M. Meyer, J. Krause, D. Brown, D. Anthony, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, and D. Reich. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522 (7555):207-11.
 
* [*Haak et al. 2015] Haak, W., I. Lazaridis, N. Patterson, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, B. Llamas, G. Brandt, S. Nordenfelt, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, Q. Fu, A. Mittnik, E. Banffy, C. Economou, M. Francken, S. Friederich, R. G. Pena, F. Hallgren, V. Khartanovich, A. Khokhlov, M. Kunst, P. Kuznetsov, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, N. Nicklisch, S. L. Pichler, R. Risch, M. A. Rojo Guerra, C. Roth, A. Szecsenyi-Nagy, J. Wahl, M. Meyer, J. Krause, D. Brown, D. Anthony, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, and D. Reich. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522 (7555):207-11.
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* [*Häusler 1978] Häusler, A. 1978. Migration oder autochtone Entwicklung. Bemerkungen zu einigen Einwendungen von L. S. Klejn in Vorstehenden Beitrag. Etn. Arch. Zeitschrift 19.
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* [*Häusler 1963] Häusler, A. 1963. Die Gräber der älteren Ockergrabkultur zwischen Dnepr und Karpaten. Berlin.
  
 
* [*Harrison and Heyd 2007] Harrison, Richard, and Volker Heyd. 2007. The Transformation of Europe in the Third Millennium BC: the example of ‘Le Petit-Chasseur I + III’ (Sion, Valais, Switzerland). Praehistorische Zeitschrift 82 (2).
 
* [*Harrison and Heyd 2007] Harrison, Richard, and Volker Heyd. 2007. The Transformation of Europe in the Third Millennium BC: the example of ‘Le Petit-Chasseur I + III’ (Sion, Valais, Switzerland). Praehistorische Zeitschrift 82 (2).
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* [*Kadrow and Zakościelna 1999] Kadrow, S., and Anna Zakościelna. 1999. An outline of the evolution of Danubian cultures in Małopolska and western Urkraine. Baltic-Pontic Studies 9:187-255.
 
* [*Kadrow and Zakościelna 1999] Kadrow, S., and Anna Zakościelna. 1999. An outline of the evolution of Danubian cultures in Małopolska and western Urkraine. Baltic-Pontic Studies 9:187-255.
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==Notes==
 
==Notes==
 
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Revision as of 19:23, 12 September 2017

The first horizon of Corded Ware culture appears in the Early Eneolithic Bubanj-Salcuţa-Krivodol cultural complex and other Old European cultures in the eastern Balkans only sporadically, possibly from influence of the Sredni Stog culture, at the end of the 5th millennium BC (ca. 4200 BC), in territories of autochthonous ceramic forms not associated with the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka expansion. This pottery developed in a western Pontic territory where corded ornament seems correlated with sheep herding. The spread of this pottery is clearly (and almost exclusively) identified with the Coţofeni group in the 2nd Corded Ware horizon, as part of the cultures of the Lower Danube and northern Bulgaria in the 4th millennium and the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. These cultures are connected with movements of steppe-related Cernavodă I society in the Danube delta, to the north into Coţofeni, and south into Ezerovo[Bulatović 2014].

Samples from the Balkans at Varna I (ca. 4630 BC), and Smyadovo (ca. 4500 BC), even before the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka expansion, and 1,500 years before the Yamna expansion, already show the so-called ‘Yamna component’[Mathieson et al. 2017]. Before that, more than 20 samples from the Ukraine Eneolithic at Deriivka and Volynia (ca. 5150 BC) showed mostly EHG ancestry, like Ukraine Mesolithic samples, but with a contribution from WHG ancestry (see transition to Neolithic), so the contribution of CHG to both Ukraine Middle Neolithic and Old European samples must have happened later.

The Corded Ware culture territory expanded from the Coţofeni territory to the south during the Eneolithic period, except for the central Balkans, where new steppe elements are noticed during this period. The Usatovo culture, settled in the territory of the Trypillian culture, replaced the Coţofeni culture at the time of the expansion of the third horizon of the Corded Ware culture into Central Europe.

There was a long-ranging connection between the north-west Pontic steppe area and the border of the Forest Zone up to the eastern Baltic area, centred on the Dniester-Bug limes (encompassing the Dniester, Dnieper, and Bug rivers). It also included the areas between the Vistula and the Dnieper (with the Lesser Poland area) – which topographically form a natural continuum. The origin of this expanding third horizon has been placed, as one of the best defined archaeological ideas in Archaeology, in this region between Lesser Poland and adjacent regions of Ukraine and Slovakia, confirmed by radiocarbon analysis to ca. 3000-2900 BC[Kristiansen 1989][Włodarczak 2008][Kristiansen et al. 2017][Anthony and Brown 2017][Kadrow 2008].

Different connecting routes to the north were used by Old European (and especially Trypillian culture) societies from the steppe, forest-steppe and Forest Zone, influencing the Funnelbeaker and Baltic cultures for millennia [Klochko and Kośko 2009][Szmyt 2013][Czebreszuk and Szmyt 2004][Kadrow and Zakościelna 1999]. This natural continuum in eastern Europe saw large scale economic and social changes, with Baden and Globular Amphorae Cultures playing a major role [Kristiansen 1989][Kristiansen et al. 2017].

The connection between pre-Caucasian (Maykop) and Late Trypillian cultures that had moved to the left bank of the Dnieper points not only to Caucasian imports, but to a likely Caucasian immigration in a series of small shifts or ‘shuttle’ movements, possibly with the aim of exchange, trade, spoils of war, borrowing of technological devices, etc. This migration is linked to the creation of “bridge” communities, like the Zhyvotylivska-Volchans’k cultural group, and the Late Trypillian Gordineşti group[Ivanova and Toschev 2015].

A sample identified as an Ukraine Eneolithic outlier from Deriivka (ca. 3500 BC), and a Trypillian outlier from the Verteba cave (ca. 3325 BC), show contributions from both CHG and Middle Eastern farmer ancestry[Mathieson et al. 2017]. The new farmer ancestry found further illustrates the complexity of human interaction in this western Pontic region between the main Neolithic (Middle PIE) and Chalcolithic (Late PIE) expansions.

The roots of the third horizon of the Corded Ware culture is to be found at the end of the 4th millennium in Podolia and Volynia, and scattered Corded Ware sites from these regions to the east of the Bug river, show old and young stages of the culture[Kadrow 2008]. In this region, Funnelbeaker traits are not found, and the late Globular Amphora culture expansions to this region (after ca. 2950 BC) cannot account for its migrations.

In Lesser Poland, during the first 300 years of its existence, the Corded Ware culture developed among the settlements of the agrarian Baden and Globular Amphora cultures, without mixing[Włodarczak 2001], among a complex regional picture formed during the 4th millennium[Zastawny 2015][Wilk 2016].

Sampled individuals from Globular Amphora culture in Poland and Ukraine form a tight genetic cluster, showing genetic homogeneity over a large distance, with 25% WHG, which suggests a persistent frontier between east-central and eastern European groups[Mathieson et al. 2017]. However, central European Neolithic samples from Benzigerode-Heimburg (ca. 3960 BC) have a similar admixture and cluster closely with Corded Ware samples, which are more than 1,500 years younger[Haak et al. 2015].

At the end of the Trypillian culture, herding/hunting trends intensified, and the agricultural system collapsed, with people moving to the steppe zone, as confirmed by the presence of numerous graves to the south[Rassamakin 1999]. At the same time, Trypillian world absorbed a foreign tradition related to materials of settlement sites of Dnieper steppes, such as the late Sredni Stog culture, like cord impressions and burial rites similar to the later Corded Ware culture, marking also the transformation of decors and changes in their interpretation[Palaguta 2007].

The similarity in burial rituals between Yamna and Corded Ware made Gimbutas define a common “Kurgan people”, whose relationship has also been long supported by Kristiansen[Kristiansen 1989][Kristiansen et al. 2017]. An equivalence of both burial rites has been, however, rejected[Häusler 1963][Häusler 1978], and it is generally agreed that the Yamna culture did not expand to the north of the Tisza River.

After ca. 3300 BC global climatic changes increased fluvial activities in river valleys and caused deforestation, intensified by human agents (due to agricultural needs), which favoured pastoralism and nomadisation of the settlement system, and a consequent change of the social structure[Kristiansen 1989][Kadrow 2008]. These changes were stabilised by a new ideology and new symbols imprinted in material culture, a new “picture of the world” of the emerging community, consisting of new and old local elements, into a new, original Corded Ware culture[Kadrow 2008][Habermas 2002].

eneolithic_forest.jpg Diachronic map of Eneolithic migrations ca. 4000-3100 BC [Anthony 2007][Szmyt 2013][Piezonka 2015], Uni-Köln.

Samples from the Balkan Neolithic and outliers from west Ukraine and Trypillia that show Yamna ancestry (see CHG ancestry) cluster closely together, and close to later central European samples from Corded Ware and Bell Beaker cultures. However, they show less ‘east Yamna’ ancestry than some later Corded Ware samples, which suggests that the original expanding population from the third Corded Ware horizon was a different one, probably to the east of the Trypillian settlement sampled. The importance of horse exploitation in Deriivka, in the forest-steppe zone of the north Pontic region along the Dnieper region, during the Middle Eneolithic period (probably ca. 3700-3530 BC), suggests that horses played a significant role in the life of this Sredni Stog community[Anthony and Brown 2003]. In its late period (ca. 4000-3500 BC), this culture had adopted corded ware pottery, and stone battle-axes.

However, this western steppe peoples were mainly hunters[Rassamakin 1999], and the ‘herding skill’ essential for wild horse domestication seems absent[Kuzmina 2003]. All this has been confirmed with zooarchaeological evidence and new molecular and stable isotope results, suggesting an absence of horse domestication in territories of the late Sredni Stog culture in the north Pontic steppe[Mileto et al. 2017], before the advent of migrants from the Indo-European-speaking Repin culture.

There is an increased ‘Yamna component’ found later in samples from Yamna culture samples in Ukraine. A original migration of the Corded Ware culture the western steppe and steppe-forest zone is therefore likely, and may account for the later common Yamna component found between Yamna and Corded Ware individuals[Allentoft et al. 2015][Haak et al. 2015][Mathieson et al. 2015]. This increased Yamna component is not found in Yamna migrants from the Balkans, like those from Mednikarovo (ca. 2960 BC) and from the Vučedol culture (ca. 2745 BC).

No direct cultural connection has been found in this area with Yamna migrants[Bulatović 2014]. Only later, during the contemporaneous Corded Ware and Yamna migration waves were direct contacts possibly between Yamna and Corded Ware herders on the upper Dniester region[Anthony 2007][Gimbutas 1977].

The most recent direct connection of the north Pontic steppe to Central European areas came from Usatovo, which continued the previous Gordineşti group. Usatovo migrants seem to have penetrated in the first half of the 3rd millennium BC northward up the Dniester, South Bug and Dnieper valleys, as Globular Amphorae and Corded Ware cultures expanded to the east beginning ca. 2900 BC, forming the Middle Dnieper culture in the forest-steppe zone around Kiev ca. 2800-2600 BC[Anthony 2007].

Corded Ware culture research is usually discussed as a purely east-central European phenomenon. However, recently obtained dates suggest that the appearance of Corded Ware in central Russia (either of early Fatyanovo or maybe proto-stages) may had begun from 2700-2600 onwards, and earlier in the Baltic[Lougas, Kriiska, and Maldre 2016]. Eastern influence is found in the southern Baltic and Estonia, connecting cultures previously identified as non-Corded Ware to the emergence of the new cultural expansion, with continuums proposed between late Comb Ware and Corded Ware pottery.

The communication between Forest Zone hunter-gatherers had old roots, and Corded Ware chronology needs further refinement, because Corded Ware was present in the northern Baltic Sea region since ca. 2800 BC[Nordqvist 2016].

chalcolithic_early_CWC.jpg Diachronic map of Copper Age migrations ca. 3100-2600 BC [Anthony 2007][Harrison and Heyd 2007][Sjogren, Price, and Kristiansen 2016][Heyd 2012][Heyd 2014].

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Notes