A more recent, revised and updated version of this paper has been published (2019)


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Samples from the Remedello culture, of haplogroup I2-M438 (one ca. 3290 BC, other ca. 2745 BC, and other ca. 1955 BC), and from Ötzi the Iceman, of haplogroup G2a-P15 (ca. 3225 BC), all of northern Italy, show a higher affinity with Chalcolithic samples from central Anatolia. This affinity is higher between them than with earlier Anatolian Neolithic populations, which is against the interpretation of Remedello’s ancestry representing a relict population stemming from Neolithic farmers[Hofmanova et al. 2016].

Because of their shared drift with CHG ancestry independent of steppe expansions, and the fact that Kumtepe predates the northern Italian group by some 1,000 years, it has been proposed that they represent a more recent, yet undescribed, gene flow process from Anatolia into Europe, from a population with continued ‘eastern’ migration[Kilinc et al. 2016][Lazaridis et al. 2017].

Nevertheless, the modern distribution of R1b1a1a2-M269 in the Alps and in ancient Tyrrhenia might point to an eastern route of the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka settlers of eastern Hungary, hence giving support to the theories describing Etruscan as an Anatolian branch[Adrados 1989][Adrados 1994]. A recent Anatolian connection has also been found by examining mtDNA in modern populations of present day Tuscany[Brisighelli et al. 2009].

On the other hand, all this could well be a sign of independent back and forth migrations between the Adriatic Sea and the Italian Peninsula, or just repeated migrations from Anatolia through southern Europe[Kilinc et al. 2016].


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  • [Hofmanova et al. 2016] ^ Hofmanova, Z., S. Kreutzer, G. Hellenthal, C. Sell, Y. Diekmann, D. Diez-Del-Molino, L. van Dorp, S. Lopez, A. Kousathanas, V. Link, K. Kirsanow, L. M. Cassidy, R. Martiniano, M. Strobel, A. Scheu, K. Kotsakis, P. Halstead, S. Triantaphyllou, N. Kyparissi-Apostolika, D. Urem-Kotsou, C. Ziota, F. Adaktylou, S. Gopalan, D. M. Bobo, L. Winkelbach, J. Blocher, M. Unterlander, C. Leuenberger, C. Cilingiroglu, B. Horejs, F. Gerritsen, S. J. Shennan, D. G. Bradley, M. Currat, K. R. Veeramah, D. Wegmann, M. G. Thomas, C. Papageorgopoulou, and J. Burger. 2016. Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113 (25):6886-91.
  • [Kilinc et al. 2016] ^ 1 2 Kilinc, G. M., A. Omrak, F. Ozer, T. Gunther, A. M. Buyukkarakaya, E. Bicakci, D. Baird, H. M. Donertas, A. Ghalichi, R. Yaka, D. Koptekin, S. C. Acan, P. Parvizi, M. Krzewinska, E. A. Daskalaki, E. Yuncu, N. D. Dagtas, A. Fairbairn, J. Pearson, G. Mustafaoglu, Y. S. Erdal, Y. G. Cakan, I. Togan, M. Somel, J. Stora, M. Jakobsson, and A. Gotherstrom. 2016. The Demographic Development of the First Farmers in Anatolia. Curr Biol 26 (19):2659-2666.
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