A more recent, revised and updated version of this paper has been published (2019)


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Samples from the Remedello culture, of haplogroup I2-M438 (dated ca. 3290 BC, ca. 2745 BC, and ca. 1955 BC), and from Ötzi the Iceman, of haplogroup G2a-P15 (ca. 3225 BC), all of northern Italy, show a high affinity with Chalcolithic samples from central Anatolia. This affinity is higher between them than with earlier Anatolian Neolithic populations, which is against the interpretation of Remedello’s ancestry representing a relict population stemming from Neolithic farmers[Hofmanova et al. 2016].

Because of their shared drift with CHG ancestry independent of steppe expansions, and the fact that Kumtepe predates the northern Italian group by some 1,000 years, it has been proposed that they represent a more recent, yet undescribed, gene flow process from Anatolia into Europe. This Anatolian population shows a continued ‘eastern’ migration[Kilinc et al. 2016][Lazaridis et al. 2017].

Nevertheless, the modern distribution of R1b1a1a2-M269 in the Alps and in ancient Tyrrhenia might point to an eastern route of the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka settlers of eastern Hungary, who may have mixed with a Balkan population related to such an Anatolian expansion, hence giving support to the theories describing Etruscan as an Anatolian branch[Adrados 1989][Adrados 1994]. A recent Anatolian connection has also been found by examining mtDNA in modern populations of present day Tuscany[Brisighelli et al. 2009].

On the other hand, all this could well be a sign of independent back and forth migrations through the Adriatic Sea, or just repeated migrations from Anatolia to the Italian Peninsula through southern Europe[Kilinc et al. 2016].


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