Revision as of 09:27, 30 October 2017 by Admin
The oldest remains of R1a1a1-M417 lineages are found in the forests north of the Pontic-Caspian steppe: ca. 6425 BC in Yzhnyy Oleni Ostrov[Haak et al. 2015], and ca. 4000 BC in Serteya VIII[Chekunova et al. 2014]. During this stage of Rudnyayan culture there is continuity in relation to the previous stage, and contacts are made with eastern Baltic area and through the Western Dvina[Mazurkevich et al. 2009].
The introduction of Typical Cord Ware, which heralded the appearance of Neolithic traits in the Forest Zone, is dated to around 3900 BC, and it was discontinued ca. 3400 BC. It was a relatively uniform culture that covered a vast area ranging from the Urals to the Baltic Sea, and from Northern Ukraine to the Arctic Ocean, although in southern Finland and Karelia variants of the older types remain still in use[Nordqvist and Mökkönen 2016].
Samples from Zvejnieki in Latvia, which had central European ancestry (70% WHG, 30% EHG) during the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic, show a dramatic shift with the introduction of the Comb Pit Ware culture in samples from Zvejnieki (73-100% EHG), which proves that a westward migration of peoples accompanied cultural changes in the region[Mathieson et al. 2017]. The last sample obtained, of ca. 2885 BC, reveals another marked transition to a maximum steppe admixture (see Corded Ware culture).
The disintegration of the Comb Ware phase began ca. 3500 BC, coinciding with the influence of the Volga-Kama region and the birth of several variants of Asbestos- and Organic-tempered Wares, although no break has been observed in cultural development[Nordqvist et al. 2012]. These groups also maintained vast and varying intra- and inter-regional contact networks.
During this period of 3500-3000 BC a shift to drier and cooler conditions is found in the steppes, with steppes expanding, and therefore also Yamna pastoralists and their cattle following them. The emergence of Volosovo and Garino-Vor metallurgy in the fourth millennium has been attributed to external influences from Yamna.
R1a1a1-M417 formation based on modern populations is dated ca. 6500 BC, with a TMRCA ca. 3500 BC, and published research pointing to a slightly earlier date ca. 3800 BC[Underhill et al. 2015], dates that are coincident with the aforementioned cultural and climatic changes.
Individuals from the Forest Zone were not found to have received genetic influx from Anatolian-farmer-related genes during the Mesolithic or Neolithic, and therefore an inner cultural diffusion of pottery, farming and metallurgy is assumed for the population of the Baltic and Dnieper Rapids[Jones et al. 2017].
Between 3500-2000 BC an interruption in cultural continuity in the Forest Zone is found, coinciding with a major change in the environment, with selective felling and subsequent regeneration of forests in the Pit-Comb Ware area[Mazurkevich et al. 2009][Poska and Saarse 2002]. This could have been caused by the complex movement of peoples in this period, as reflected by the interaction or “checkerboard of regional cultures covering the rolling hills and valleys of the forest steppe zone”[Anthony 2007], and a complex set of cultures is found in the East European Forest Zone, different from Central European cultures[Czebreszuk and Szmyt 2004].
- [Anthony 2007] ^ 1 2 3 Anthony, D. 2007. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
- [Chekunova et al. 2014] ^ Chekunova, Е.М., N.V. Yartseva, М.К. Chekunov, and А.N. Мazurkevich. 2014. The First Results of the Genotyping of the Aboriginals and Human Bone Remains of the Archeological Memorials of the Upper Podvin’e. // Archeology of the lake settlements of IV—II Thousands BC: The chronology of cultures and natural environment and climatic rhythms. Paper read at Proceedings of the International Conference, Devoted to the 50-year Research of the Pile Settlements on the North-West of Russia., 13-15 November, at St. Petersburg.
- [Czebreszuk and Szmyt 2004] ^ Czebreszuk, J., and M. Szmyt. 2004. Chronology of Central-European Influences within the Western Part of the Forest Zone during the 3rd Millenium BC. In Проблемы хронологии и этнокультурных взаимодействий в неолите Евразии, edited by V. I. Timofeev and G. I. Zayceva. Санкт-Петербург: ИИМК РАН.
- [Czekaj-Zastawny, Kabaciński, and Terberger 2015] ^ Czekaj-Zastawny, Agnieszka, Jacek Kabaciński, and Thomas Terberger. 2015. Long distance exchange in the Central European Neolithic: Hungary to the Baltic. Antiquity 85 (327):43-58.
- [Haak et al. 2015] ^ Haak, W., I. Lazaridis, N. Patterson, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, B. Llamas, G. Brandt, S. Nordenfelt, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, Q. Fu, A. Mittnik, E. Banffy, C. Economou, M. Francken, S. Friederich, R. G. Pena, F. Hallgren, V. Khartanovich, A. Khokhlov, M. Kunst, P. Kuznetsov, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, N. Nicklisch, S. L. Pichler, R. Risch, M. A. Rojo Guerra, C. Roth, A. Szecsenyi-Nagy, J. Wahl, M. Meyer, J. Krause, D. Brown, D. Anthony, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, and D. Reich. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522 (7555):207-11.
- [Jones et al. 2017] ^ Jones, Eppie R., Gunita Zarina, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Emma Lightfoot, Philip R. Nigst, Andrea Manica, Ron Pinhasi, and Daniel G. Bradley. 2017. The Neolithic Transition in the Baltic Was Not Driven by Admixture with Early European Farmers. Current Biology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.12.060
- [Mathieson et al. 2017] ^ Mathieson, Iain, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Cosimo Posth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Iñigo Olade, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Olivia Cheronet, Daniel Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Beatriz Gamarra, Gloria González Fortes, Wolfgang Haak, Eadaoin Harney, Ben Krause-Kyora, Isil Kucukkalipci, Megan Michel, Alissa Mittnik, Kathrin Nägele, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nick Patterson, Saskia Pfrengle, Kendra Sirak, Kristin Stewardson, Stefania Vai, Stefan Alexandrov, Kurt W. Alt, Radian Andreescu, Dragana Antonović, Abigail Ash, Nadezhda Atanassova, Krum Bacvarov, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Hervé Bocherens, Michael Bolus, Adina Boroneanţ, Yavor Boyadzhiev, Alicja Budnik, Josip Burmaz, Stefan Chohadzhiev, Nicholas J. Conard, Richard Cottiaux, Maja Čuka, Christophe Cupillard, Dorothée G. Drucker, Nedko Elenski, Michael Francken, Borislava Galabova, Georgi Ganetovski, Bernard Gely, Tamás Hajdu, Veneta Handzhyiska, Katerina Harvati, Thomas Higham, Stanislav Iliev, Ivor Janković, Ivor Karavanić, Douglas J. Kennett, Darko Komšo, Alexandra Kozak, Damian Labuda, Martina Lari, Catalin Lazar, Maleen Leppek, Krassimir Leshtakov, Domenico Lo Vetro, Dženi Los, Ivaylo Lozanov, Maria Malina, Fabio Martini, Kath McSweeney, Harald Meller, Marko Menđušić, Pavel Mirea, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Vanya Petrova, T. Douglas Price, Angela Simalcsik, Luca Sineo, Mario Šlaus, Vladimir Slavchev, Petar Stanev, Andrej Starović, Tamás Szeniczey, Sahra Talamo, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Corinne Thevenet, Ivan Valchev, Frédérique Valentin, Sergey Vasilyev, Fanica Veljanovska, Svetlana Venelinova, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, Bence Viola, Cristian Virag, Joško Zaninović, Steve Zäuner, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Giulio Catalano, Raiko Krauß, David Caramelli, Gunita Zariņa, Bisserka Gaydarska, Malcolm Lillie, Alexey G. Nikitin, Inna Potekhina, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Dušan Borić, Clive Bonsall, Johannes Krause, Ron Pinhasi, and David Reich. 2017. The Genomic History Of Southeastern Europe. bioRxiv.
- [Mazurkevich et al. 2009] ^ 1 2 Mazurkevich, A. N., B. N. Korotkevich, P. M. Dolukhanov, A. M. Shukurov, Kh A. Arslanov, L. A. Savel'eva, E. N. Dzinoridze, M. A. Kulkova, and G. I. Zaitseva. 2009. Climate, subsistence and human movements in the Western Dvina – Lovat River Basins. Quaternary International 203 (1-2):52-66.
- [Piezonka 2015] ^ 1 2 Piezonka, Henny. 2015. Older than the farmers' pots? Hunter-gatherer ceramics east of the Baltic Sea. In The Dąbki Site in Pomerania and the Neolithisation of the North European Lowlands (c. 5000-3000 calBC), edited by J. Kabaciński, S. Hatz, R. D. C. M. and T. Terberger. Rahden/Westf.: Marie Leidorf.
- [Nordqvist et al. 2012] ^ Nordqvist, Kerkko, Vesa-Pekka Herva, Janne Ikäheimo, and Antti Lahelma. 2012. Early Copper Use in Neolithic North-Eastern Europe: An Overview. Estonian Journal of Archaeology 16 (1):3-25.
- [Nordqvist and Mökkönen 2016] ^ Nordqvist, Kerkko, and Teemu Mökkönen. 2016. New Radiocarbon Dates for Early Pottery in North-Eastern Europe. In Традиции и инновации в изучении древнейшей керамики, edited by Л. Б. Вишняцкий and Е. Л. Костылёва. Санкт-Петербург, Россия: ИИМК РАН.
- [Poska and Saarse 2002] ^ Poska, A., and L. Saarse. 2002. Vegetation development and introduction of agriculture to Saaremaa Island, Estonia: the human response to shore displacement. The Holocene 12 (5):555-568.
- [Szmyt 2013] ^ Szmyt, Marzena. 2013. The circulation of People and Ideas in the Baltic and Pontic Areas during 3rd millennium BC.
- [Underhill et al. 2015] ^ Underhill, P. A., G. D. Poznik, S. Rootsi, M. Jarve, A. A. Lin, J. Wang, B. Passarelli, J. Kanbar, N. M. Myres, R. J. King, J. Di Cristofaro, H. Sahakyan, D. M. Behar, A. Kushniarevich, J. Sarac, T. Saric, P. Rudan, A. K. Pathak, G. Chaubey, V. Grugni, O. Semino, L. Yepiskoposyan, A. Bahmanimehr, S. Farjadian, O. Balanovsky, E. K. Khusnutdinova, R. J. Herrera, J. Chiaroni, C. D. Bustamante, S. R. Quake, T. Kivisild, and R. Villems. 2015. The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a. Eur J Hum Genet 23 (1):124-31.