A more recent, revised and updated version of this paper has been published (2019)

Indo-European demic diffusion model

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Introduction.- Previous archaeological and linguistic theories have based the expansion of some Indo-European proto-languages on the spread of the Corded Ware cultures, under the influence of the Yamna horizon.

Materials and Methods.- Analysis of ancient and modern DNA samples together with available archaeological and linguistic data.

Results.- SNPs and admixture analyses of ancient and modern DNA samples have been used together with recent archaeological and linguistic data to obtain a more precise general picture of the evolution of Eurasian cultures, peoples, and languages related to Indo-European languages. The Indo-European demic diffusion model proposed advances the theory that the expansion of Indo-European languages from the steppe was mainly linked to the expansion of peoples belonging to haplogroup R1b in Eurasia. A North-West Indo-European group most likely expanded directly with western Yamna migrants into the East Bell Beaker culture, and the Corded Ware culture was probably not linked to the expansion of Indo-European languages.

Discussion.- The model proposed challenges previous archaeological and linguistic theories concerning the dialectal evolution of Late Proto-Indo-European.

Conclusion.- Careful cross-disciplinary investigation of ancient DNA samples recently published supports a demic diffusion model for the expansion of Indo-European languages.