Revision as of 10:59, 30 May 2017 by Admin (Created page with "Language and culture expansion is explained by two main alternative models: the demic diffusion model, which involves mass movement of people; and the cultural diffusion model...")
Language and culture expansion is explained by two main alternative models: the demic diffusion model, which involves mass movement of people; and the cultural diffusion model, which refers to cultural impact between populations, and involves limited genetic exchange between them. Language transfer since ancient times seems to be associated with an expansion of people (Mikhailova 2015), which is demonstrated, in most cases, by a significant replacement of patrilineal Y-DNA. Investigation of Y-DNA haplogroups help demonstrate e.g. the expansion of Han people in Northern and Southern China (Wen et al. 2004; Zhao et al. 2015), and the expansion of Arabs in the Arab peninsula (Chiaroni et al. 2010), and into Southern Levant and North Africa (Nebel et al. 2002). Recently, the genetic history of Europe – including the expansion of hunter-gatherers and farmers – has been more precisely shaped thanks to ancient DNA research (Fu et al. 2016).
The recent expansion into Europe and Asia of Eurasian pastoralists, commonly identified with Indo-European speakers in mainstream diffusion models (Gimbutas 1993; Mallory 2014), was linked to haplogroup R1a (Semino 2000; Wells et al. 2001; Zerjal et al. 1999) due to the correlation of its modern geographic distribution with the ancient Corded Ware culture, and modern Balto-Slavic, Germanic, and Indo-Iranian speaking areas (Mirabal et al. 2009; Underhill et al. 2010).
Haplogroup R1b, which shows a modern Western European distribution peaking in the British Isles and around historically Basque-speaking regions (Myres et al. 2011; Lucotte 2015), was until recently associated with a Palaeolithic Western European origin (Morelli et al. 2010; Semino 2000). With decreased age estimates of haplogroup R1b in Europe, a more recent spread with farming has been suggested (Myres et al. 2011; Chiaroni, Underhill, and Cavalli-Sforza 2009; Cruciani et al. 2011; Balaresque et al. 2010). Following these genetic frameworks, Indo-European languages would have spread with an Indo-European-speaking, R1a-dominated, invasive, Eastern (Corded Ware culture) population into a non-Indo-European-speaking, R1b-dominated, Western Atlantic (Bell Beaker culture) population. This connection was the weakest link between the supposed archaeological and the attested historical European linguistic landscapes, needing explanatory models that included some kind of cultural diffusion model – e.g. technologically- or economically-based (Brandt et al. 2015).
Ancient DNA (aDNA) investigation allows us to disentangle complex human history (Slatkin and Racimo 2016). The most recent research of ancient genetics (Haak et al. 2015; Allentoft et al. 2015; Mathieson et al. 2015), concerned with general population movements of Eurasians westwards from the steppe, has shown with their published data that haplogroup R1b was almost absent from Western Europe until after the expansion of Eurasian pastoralists, that the origin of most of its modern descendants in Western Europe is probably to be traced to the Pontic-Caspian steppes, and therefore that its expansion into central Europe happened at nearly the same time as haplogroup R1a, i.e. from the East and after ca. 3000 BC (Haak et al. 2015). In these studies, R1a was almost absent from samples of the Yamna horizon, most of which belonged to haplogroup R1b-M269.
The earliest linguistic link between haplogroups R1b and R1a, deemed until recently a cultural diffusion along the Corded Ware – Bell Beaker contact area (and later among Bell Beaker groups), seems thus to be contested by the latest genetic research. However, alternative explanations are being sought to adapt older paradigms to the newest research, suggesting a direct connection of the expansion of Indo-European languages to the Corded Ware culture (Allentoft et al. 2015), and thus R1a as the genetic marker of the expansion of Proto-Indo-European speakers in Europe (Horvath 2015).
Allentoft, Morten E., Martin Sikora, Karl-Goran Sjogren, Simon Rasmussen, Morten Rasmussen, Jesper Stenderup, Peter B. Damgaard, Hannes Schroeder, Torbjorn Ahlstrom, Lasse Vinner, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Ashot Margaryan, Tom Higham, David Chivall, Niels Lynnerup, Lise Harvig, Justyna Baron, Philippe Della Casa, Pawel Dabrowski, Paul R. Duffy, Alexander V. Ebel, Andrey Epimakhov, Karin Frei, Miroslaw Furmanek, Tomasz Gralak, Andrey Gromov, Stanislaw Gronkiewicz, Gisela Grupe, Tamas Hajdu, Radoslaw Jarysz, Valeri Khartanovich, Alexandr Khokhlov, Viktoria Kiss, Jan Kolar, Aivar Kriiska, Irena Lasak, Cristina Longhi, George McGlynn, Algimantas Merkevicius, Inga Merkyte, Mait Metspalu, Ruzan Mkrtchyan, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Laszlo Paja, Gyorgy Palfi, Dalia Pokutta, Lukasz Pospieszny, T. Douglas Price, Lehti Saag, Mikhail Sablin, Natalia Shishlina, Vaclav Smrcka, Vasilii I. Soenov, Vajk Szeverenyi, Gusztav Toth, Synaru V. Trifanova, Liivi Varul, Magdolna Vicze, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Vladislav Zhitenev, Ludovic Orlando, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Soren Brunak, Rasmus Nielsen, Kristian Kristiansen, and Eske Willerslev. 2015. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature 522 (7555):167-172.
Balaresque, P., G. R. Bowden, S. M. Adams, H. Y. Leung, T. E. King, Z. H. Rosser, J. Goodwin, J. P. Moisan, C. Richard, A. Millward, A. G. Demaine, G. Barbujani, C. Previdere, I. J. Wilson, C. Tyler-Smith, and M. A. Jobling. 2010. A predominantly neolithic origin for European paternal lineages. PLoS Biol 8 (1):e1000285.
Brandt, G., A. Szecsenyi-Nagy, C. Roth, K. W. Alt, and W. Haak. 2015. Human paleogenetics of Europe--the known knowns and the known unknowns. J Hum Evol 79:73-92. Chiaroni, J., P. A. Underhill, and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza. 2009. Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 (48):20174-9.
Chiaroni, Jacques, Roy J King, Natalie M Myres, Brenna M Henn, Axel Ducourneau, Michael J Mitchell, Gilles Boetsch, Issa Sheikha, Alice A Lin, Mahnoosh Nik-Ahd, Jabeen Ahmad, Francesca Lattanzi, Rene J Herrera, Muntaser E Ibrahim, Aaron Brody, Ornella Semino, Toomas Kivisild, and Peter A Underhill. 2010. The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations. Eur J Hum Genet 18 (3):348–353.
Cruciani, F., B. Trombetta, C. Antonelli, R. Pascone, G. Valesini, V. Scalzi, G. Vona, B. Melegh, B. Zagradisnik, G. Assum, G. D. Efremov, D. Sellitto, and R. Scozzari. 2011. Strong intra- and inter-continental differentiation revealed by Y chromosome SNPs M269, U106 and U152. Forensic Sci Int Genet 5 (3):e49-52.
Fu, Q., C. Posth, M. Hajdinjak, M. Petr, S. Mallick, D. Fernandes, A. Furtwangler, W. Haak, M. Meyer, A. Mittnik, B. Nickel, A. Peltzer, N. Rohland, V. Slon, S. Talamo, I. Lazaridis, M. Lipson, I. Mathieson, S. Schiffels, P. Skoglund, A. P. Derevianko, N. Drozdov, V. Slavinsky, A. Tsybankov, R. G. Cremonesi, F. Mallegni, B. Gely, E. Vacca, M. R. Morales, L. G. Straus, C. Neugebauer-Maresch, M. Teschler-Nicola, S. Constantin, O. T. Moldovan, S. Benazzi, M. Peresani, D. Coppola, M. Lari, S. Ricci, A. Ronchitelli, F. Valentin, C. Thevenet, K. Wehrberger, D. Grigorescu, H. Rougier, I. Crevecoeur, D. Flas, P. Semal, M. A. Mannino, C. Cupillard, H. Bocherens, N. J. Conard, K. Harvati, V. Moiseyev, D. G. Drucker, J. Svoboda, M. P. Richards, D. Caramelli, R. Pinhasi, J. Kelso, N. Patterson, J. Krause, S. Paabo, and D. Reich. 2016. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe. Nature 534 (7606):200-5.
Gimbutas, Marija. 1993. The Indo-Europeanization of Europe: the intrusion of steppe pastoralists from south Russia and the transformation of Old Europe. Word 44 (2):205-222. Haak, W., I. Lazaridis, N. Patterson, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, B. Llamas, G. Brandt, S. Nordenfelt, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, Q. Fu, A. Mittnik, E. Banffy, C. Economou, M. Francken, S. Friederich, R. G. Pena, F. Hallgren, V. Khartanovich, A. Khokhlov, M. Kunst, P. Kuznetsov, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, N. Nicklisch, S. L. Pichler, R. Risch, M. A. Rojo Guerra, C. Roth, A. Szecsenyi-Nagy, J. Wahl, M. Meyer, J. Krause, D. Brown, D. Anthony, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, and D. Reich. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522 (7555):207-11.
Horvath, Csaba Barnabas. 2015. R1a sublcades and Bronze Age migrations on the Eurasian steppes. ESJ 2.
Lucotte, Gérard. 2015. The Major Y-Chromosome Haplogroup R1b-M269 in West-Europe, Subdivided by the Three SNPs S21/U106, S145/L21 and S28/U152, Shows a Clear Pattern of Geographic Differentiation. Advances in Anthropology 05 (01):22-30.
Mallory, J. P. 2014. Indo-European dispersals and the Eurasian Steppe. In Reconfiguring the Silk Road: New Research on East-West Exchange in Antiquity, edited by V. H. Mair and J. Hickman. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
Mathieson, I., I. Lazaridis, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, N. Patterson, S. A. Roodenberg, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, D. Fernandes, M. Novak, K. Sirak, C. Gamba, E. R. Jones, B. Llamas, S. Dryomov, J. Pickrell, J. L. Arsuaga, J. M. de Castro, E. Carbonell, F. Gerritsen, A. Khokhlov, P. Kuznetsov, M. Lozano, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, M. A. Guerra, J. Roodenberg, J. M. Verges, J. Krause, A. Cooper, K. W. Alt, D. Brown, D. Anthony, C. Lalueza-Fox, W. Haak, R. Pinhasi, and D. Reich. 2015. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians. Nature 528 (7583):499-503.
Mikhailova, Tatyana A. 2015. Celtic origin: location in time and space? Reconsidering the “East-West Celtic” debate. Journal of Language Relationship 13 (3):257-279. Mirabal, S., M. Regueiro, A. M. Cadenas, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, P. A. Underhill, D. A. Verbenko, S. A. Limborska, and R. J. Herrera. 2009. Y-chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia. Eur J Hum Genet 17 (10):1260-73.
Morelli, L., D. Contu, F. Santoni, M. B. Whalen, P. Francalacci, and F. Cucca. 2010. A comparison of Y-chromosome variation in Sardinia and Anatolia is more consistent with cultural rather than demic diffusion of agriculture. PLoS One 5 (4):e10419.
Myres, N. M., S. Rootsi, A. A. Lin, M. Jarve, R. J. King, I. Kutuev, V. M. Cabrera, E. K. Khusnutdinova, A. Pshenichnov, B. Yunusbayev, O. Balanovsky, E. Balanovska, P. Rudan, M. Baldovic, R. J. Herrera, J. Chiaroni, J. Di Cristofaro, R. Villems, T. Kivisild, and P. A. Underhill. 2011. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe. Eur J Hum Genet 19 (1):95-101.
Nebel, Almut, Ella Landau-Tasseron, Dvora Filon, Ariella Oppenheim, and Marina Faerman. 2002. Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa. Am J Hum Genet 70 (6):1594–1596.
Semino, O. 2000. The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective. Science 290 (5494):1155-1159. Slatkin, M., and F. Racimo. 2016. Ancient DNA and human history. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113 (23):6380-7.
Underhill, P. A., N. M. Myres, S. Rootsi, M. Metspalu, L. A. Zhivotovsky, R. J. King, A. A. Lin, C. E. Chow, O. Semino, V. Battaglia, I. Kutuev, M. Jarve, G. Chaubey, Q. Ayub, A. Mohyuddin, S. Q. Mehdi, S. Sengupta, E. I. Rogaev, E. K. Khusnutdinova, A. Pshenichnov, O. Balanovsky, E. Balanovska, N. Jeran, D. H. Augustin, M. Baldovic, R. J. Herrera, K. Thangaraj, V. Singh, L. Singh, P. Majumder, P. Rudan, D. Primorac, R. Villems, and T. Kivisild. 2010. Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a. Eur J Hum Genet 18 (4):479-84.
Wells, R. S., N. Yuldasheva, R. Ruzibakiev, P. A. Underhill, I. Evseeva, J. Blue-Smith, L. Jin, B. Su, R. Pitchappan, S. Shanmugalakshmi, K. Balakrishnan, M. Read, N. M. Pearson, T. Zerjal, M. T. Webster, I. Zholoshvili, E. Jamarjashvili, S. Gambarov, B. Nikbin, A. Dostiev, O. Aknazarov, P. Zalloua, I. Tsoy, M. Kitaev, M. Mirrakhimov, A. Chariev, and W. F. Bodmer. 2001. The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (18):10244-9.
Wen, Bo, Hui Li, Daru Lu, Xiufeng Song, Feng Zhang, Yungang He, Feng Li, Yang Gao, Xianyun Mao, Liang Zhang, Ji Qian, Jingze Tan, Jianzhong Jin, Wei Huang, Ranjan Deka, Bing Su, Ranajit Chakraborty, and Li Jin. 2004. Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture. Nature 431:302-305.
Zerjal, Tatiana, Arpita Pandya, Fabrício R Santos, Raju Adhikari, Eduardo Tarazona, Manfred Kayser, Oleg Evgrafov, Lalji Singh, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Giovanni Destro-Bisol, Mark G. Thomas, Raheel Qamar, S. Qasim Mehdi, Zoë H. Rosser, Matthew E. Hurles, Mark A. Jobling, and Chris Tyler-Smith. 1999. The Use of Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation to Investigate Population History. Recent Male Spread in Asia and Europe. In Genomic Diversity: Applications in Human Population Genetics, edited by S. S. Papiha, R. Deka and R. Chakraborty. New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.
Zhao, Yong-Bin, Ye Zhang, Quan-Chao Zhang, Hong-Jie Li, Ying-Qiu Cui, Zhi Xu, Li Jin, Hui Zhou, and Hong Zhu. 2015. Ancient DNA Reveals That the Genetic Structure of the Northern Han Chinese Was Shaped Prior to 3,000 Years Ago PLoS One 10 (5):e0125676.