A more recent, revised and updated version of this paper has been published (2019)


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A sample from the Mal’ta boy dated ca. 22350 BC shows that his paternal lineage diverged from haplogroup R-M207* shortly before its split into R1-M173 and R2-M479 subclades[Raghavan et al. 2014].

His ancestry has been revealed to have contributed substantially to the genetic ancestry of Siberians, Native Americans, and Bronze Age Yamna individuals[Lazaridis et al. 2016], being close to modern-day Native Americans, Kets, Mansi, Nganasans, and Yukaghirs[Flegontov et al. 2016].

Haplogroup R-M207 is itself descended from a common ancient lineage shared with the Ust’-Ishim man (ca. 43070 BC), probably belonging to the first wave of humans to migrate out of Africa into Eurasia[Fu et al. 2014].

Main subclades include R1b-M343 and R1a-M420, whose development is traced to the Pontic-Caspian steppes in the Younger Dryas and Boreal periods, and can be related to the reconstructed Palaeolithic languages.


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