A more recent, revised and updated version of this paper has been published (2019)


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A sample from the Mal’ta boy dated ca. 22350 BC shows that his paternal lineage diverged from haplogroup R-M207* shortly before its split into R1-M173 and R2-M479 subclades (Raghavan et al. 2014). His ancestry has been revealed to have contributed substantially to the genetic ancestry of Siberians, Native Americans, and Bronze Age Yamna individuals (Lazaridis et al. 2016), being close to modern-day Native Americans, Kets, Mansi, Nganasans, and Yukaghirs (Flegontov et al. 2016). Haplogroup R-M207 is itself descended from a common ancient lineage shared with the Ust’-Ishim man (ca. 43070 BC), probably belonging to the first wave of humans to migrate out of Africa into Eurasia (Fu et al. 2014).

Main subclades include R1b-M343 and R1a-M420, whose development is traced to the Pontic-Caspian steppes in the Younger Dryas and Boreal periods, and can be related to the reconstructed Palaeolithic languages.


Flegontov, P., P. Changmai, A. Zidkova, M. D. Logacheva, N. E. Altinisik, O. Flegontova, M. S. Gelfand, E. S. Gerasimov, E. E. Khrameeva, O. P. Konovalova, T. Neretina, Y. V. Nikolsky, G. Starostin, V. V. Stepanova, I. V. Travinsky, M. Triska, P. Triska, and T. V. Tatarinova. 2016. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry. Sci Rep 6:20768.

Fu, Q., H. Li, P. Moorjani, F. Jay, S. M. Slepchenko, A. A. Bondarev, P. L. Johnson, A. Aximu-Petri, K. Prufer, C. de Filippo, M. Meyer, N. Zwyns, D. C. Salazar-Garcia, Y. V. Kuzmin, S. G. Keates, P. A. Kosintsev, D. I. Razhev, M. P. Richards, N. V. Peristov, M. Lachmann, K. Douka, T. F. Higham, M. Slatkin, J. J. Hublin, D. Reich, J. Kelso, T. B. Viola, and S. Paabo. 2014. Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia. Nature 514 (7523):445-9.

Lazaridis, I., D. Nadel, G. Rollefson, D. C. Merrett, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, D. Fernandes, M. Novak, B. Gamarra, K. Sirak, S. Connell, K. Stewardson, E. Harney, Q. Fu, G. Gonzalez-Fortes, E. R. Jones, S. A. Roodenberg, G. Lengyel, F. Bocquentin, B. Gasparian, J. M. Monge, M. Gregg, V. Eshed, A. S. Mizrahi, C. Meiklejohn, F. Gerritsen, L. Bejenaru, M. Bluher, A. Campbell, G. Cavalleri, D. Comas, P. Froguel, E. Gilbert, S. M. Kerr, P. Kovacs, J. Krause, D. McGettigan, M. Merrigan, D. A. Merriwether, S. O'Reilly, M. B. Richards, O. Semino, M. Shamoon-Pour, G. Stefanescu, M. Stumvoll, A. Tonjes, A. Torroni, J. F. Wilson, L. Yengo, N. A. Hovhannisyan, N. Patterson, R. Pinhasi, and D. Reich. 2016. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature 536 (7617):419-24.

Raghavan, M., P. Skoglund, K. E. Graf, M. Metspalu, A. Albrechtsen, I. Moltke, S. Rasmussen, T. W. Stafford, Jr., L. Orlando, E. Metspalu, M. Karmin, K. Tambets, S. Rootsi, R. Magi, P. F. Campos, E. Balanovska, O. Balanovsky, E. Khusnutdinova, S. Litvinov, L. P. Osipova, S. A. Fedorova, M. I. Voevoda, M. DeGiorgio, T. Sicheritz-Ponten, S. Brunak, S. Demeshchenko, T. Kivisild, R. Villems, R. Nielsen, M. Jakobsson, and E. Willerslev. 2014. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans. Nature 505 (7481):87-91.