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Difference between revisions of "Yamna package"

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The 'Yamna package', as defined by Volker Heyd[Harrison and Heyd 2007][Heyd 2007] (combining his own and many other previous works), consists of the following eleven components:
 
The 'Yamna package', as defined by Volker Heyd[Harrison and Heyd 2007][Heyd 2007] (combining his own and many other previous works), consists of the following eleven components:
[[File:Yamna-package.jpg|right|frame|400px|<small>''Examples of the 'Yamna package' components''</small>]]
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*The '''social''' sphere
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== The social sphere ==
**The round barrow ("tumulus") as a personalised monument, often combined with an anthropomorphic stela reinforcing the personhood of the deceased.
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**Single burial with the deceased lying flexed on its back, often covered in red ochre, and in a deep rectangular pit.
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*The round barrow ("tumulus") as a personalised monument, often combined with an anthropomorphic stela reinforcing the personhood of the deceased.
**Social position and gender are sistematically marked (less so in Bulgaria), with a wooden wagon marking an elevated social position (at the western edge, there is little grave equipment).
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*Single burial with the deceased lying flexed on its back, often covered in red ochre, and in a deep rectangular pit.
** Craftsmen - especially metalworkers - have a special social status in the north Pontic region.
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*Social position and gender are sistematically marked (less so in Bulgaria), with a wooden wagon marking an elevated social position (at the western edge, there is little grave equipment).
** Hoarding metal objects begin again, with shaft-hole axes in the western Yamna area.
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* Craftsmen - especially metalworkers - have a special social status in the north Pontic region.
* The '''technological''' sphere
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* Hoarding metal objects begin again, with shaft-hole axes in the western Yamna area.
**Re-establishment of metallurgy of gold and copper, following a long decline after 3500 BC. A different 'Caucasian mettalurgy' consisting of smelting, working, and casting in two-piece stone moulds.
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**New weapon designs in copper: the shaft-hole axe and tanged metal dagger.
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== The technological sphere ==
*The '''economic''' sphere
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**The domesticated horse, important in a dedicated pastoral economy which raises herds of cattle and flocks of sheep for wool.
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*Re-establishment of metallurgy of gold and copper, following a long decline after 3500 BC. A different 'Caucasian mettalurgy' consisting of smelting, working, and casting in two-piece stone moulds.
**Wooden wagons placed in graves as social markers, the westernmost examples are graves of Placidol in northern Bulgaria.
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*New weapon designs in copper: the shaft-hole axe and tanged metal dagger.
*The '''material''' sphere
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**The custom of using simple golden, electrum or silver hair rings, a distinctive bone toggle, and decorated bone discs
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== The economic sphere ==
**Widespread use of cord decoration on pottery; the common cross-footed bowls, copy models on the eastern Pontic steppes.
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 +
*The domesticated horse, important in a dedicated pastoral economy which raises herds of cattle and flocks of sheep for wool.
 +
*Wooden wagons placed in graves as social markers, the westernmost examples are graves of Placidol in northern Bulgaria.
 +
 
 +
== The material sphere ==
 +
 
 +
*The custom of using simple golden, electrum or silver hair rings, a distinctive bone toggle, and decorated bone discs
 +
*Widespread use of cord decoration on pottery; the common cross-footed bowls, copy models on the eastern Pontic steppes.
 +
 
 +
<span class="plainlinks">[https://indo-european.eu/maps/yamna-bell-beaker/ https://indo-european.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/yamna-package.jpg]</span>
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<small>''Examples of the 'Yamna package' components.  Modified from [https://www.academia.edu/1249547/_2007_R.J._Harrison_and_V._Heyd_The_Transformation_of_Europe_in_the_Third_Millennium_BC_The_Example_of_Le_Petit_Chasseur_I_III_Sion_Valais_Switzerland_._Praehistorische_Zeitschrift_82_2_2007_p._129-214 (Harrison and Heyd 2007)].''</small>
  
 
These components later evolved in western Europe (in the upper Danube), in combination with the 'Proto-Beaker package', into the classical [[Bell Beaker culture]].
 
These components later evolved in western Europe (in the upper Danube), in combination with the 'Proto-Beaker package', into the classical [[Bell Beaker culture]].
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<span class="plainlinks">[https://indo-european.eu/maps/yamna-bell-beaker/ https://indo-european.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/yamna-bell-beaker.jpg]</span>
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''Yamna - East Bell Beaker migration 3000-2300 BC. Adapted from Heyd[Harrison and Heyd 2007] '' 
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
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* [*Harrison and Heyd 2007] Harrison, Richard, and Volker Heyd. 2007. [https://www.academia.edu/1249547/_2007_R.J._Harrison_and_V._Heyd_The_Transformation_of_Europe_in_the_Third_Millennium_BC_The_Example_of_Le_Petit_Chasseur_I_III_Sion_Valais_Switzerland_._Praehistorische_Zeitschrift_82_2_2007_p._129-214 The Transformation of Europe in the Third Millennium BC: the example of ‘Le Petit-Chasseur I + III’ (Sion, Valais, Switzerland)]. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 82 (2).
 
* [*Harrison and Heyd 2007] Harrison, Richard, and Volker Heyd. 2007. [https://www.academia.edu/1249547/_2007_R.J._Harrison_and_V._Heyd_The_Transformation_of_Europe_in_the_Third_Millennium_BC_The_Example_of_Le_Petit_Chasseur_I_III_Sion_Valais_Switzerland_._Praehistorische_Zeitschrift_82_2_2007_p._129-214 The Transformation of Europe in the Third Millennium BC: the example of ‘Le Petit-Chasseur I + III’ (Sion, Valais, Switzerland)]. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 82 (2).
  
* [*Heyd 2007] Heyd, Volker. 2007. [https://www.academia.edu/1249528/_2011_V._Heyd_Yamnaya_Groups_and_Tumuli_west_of_the_Black_Sea._In_Ancestral_Landscapes._Ed._by_E._Borgna_and_S._M%C3%BCller_Celka._TMO_58_Lyon_p._536-555 Yamnaya gropus and tumuli west of the Black Sea]. Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée. Série recherches archéologiques 58 (1):535-555.
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* [*Heyd 2007] Heyd, Volker. 2007. [https://www.academia.edu/1249528/_2011_V._Heyd_Yamnaya_Groups_and_Tumuli_west_of_the_Black_Sea._In_Ancestral_Landscapes._Ed._by_E._Borgna_and_S._M%C3%BCller_Celka._TMO_58_Lyon_p._536-555 Yamnaya groups and tumuli west of the Black Sea]. Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée. Série recherches archéologiques 58 (1):535-555.
 
<HarvardReferences />
 
<HarvardReferences />

Latest revision as of 17:26, 3 November 2017

The 'Yamna package', as defined by Volker Heyd[Harrison and Heyd 2007][Heyd 2007] (combining his own and many other previous works), consists of the following eleven components:

The social sphere

  • The round barrow ("tumulus") as a personalised monument, often combined with an anthropomorphic stela reinforcing the personhood of the deceased.
  • Single burial with the deceased lying flexed on its back, often covered in red ochre, and in a deep rectangular pit.
  • Social position and gender are sistematically marked (less so in Bulgaria), with a wooden wagon marking an elevated social position (at the western edge, there is little grave equipment).
  • Craftsmen - especially metalworkers - have a special social status in the north Pontic region.
  • Hoarding metal objects begin again, with shaft-hole axes in the western Yamna area.

The technological sphere

  • Re-establishment of metallurgy of gold and copper, following a long decline after 3500 BC. A different 'Caucasian mettalurgy' consisting of smelting, working, and casting in two-piece stone moulds.
  • New weapon designs in copper: the shaft-hole axe and tanged metal dagger.

The economic sphere

  • The domesticated horse, important in a dedicated pastoral economy which raises herds of cattle and flocks of sheep for wool.
  • Wooden wagons placed in graves as social markers, the westernmost examples are graves of Placidol in northern Bulgaria.

The material sphere

  • The custom of using simple golden, electrum or silver hair rings, a distinctive bone toggle, and decorated bone discs
  • Widespread use of cord decoration on pottery; the common cross-footed bowls, copy models on the eastern Pontic steppes.

yamna-package.jpg

Examples of the 'Yamna package' components. Modified from (Harrison and Heyd 2007).

These components later evolved in western Europe (in the upper Danube), in combination with the 'Proto-Beaker package', into the classical Bell Beaker culture.

yamna-bell-beaker.jpg Yamna - East Bell Beaker migration 3000-2300 BC. Adapted from Heyd[Harrison and Heyd 2007]

References